Academic Standards and Regulations - All
Students are personally responsible to review the academic rules and regulations. If students have questions about particular regulations, they should contact their advisor in either the Office of University Advising or their academic dean's office for clarification.
Communication from Academic Deans
Official notices may be presented to students through the deans' bulletin boards, website, or via Loyola e-mail. Students are individually responsible for this information and should check their college's board and e-mail regularly.
Students with Disabilities
At times, students with disabilities may wish to avail themselves of the University's ancillary services. Students who would like accommodations at the University need to contact the Coordinator of Services for Students with Disabilities. Contact information is available at www.luc.edu/depts/lac/disabilities.
Final examinations are given during the scheduled examination period in each session. Students are expected to take no more than three final examinations in one day. Tests or examinations may be given during the semester or summer sessions as often as deemed advisable by the instructor. Students who miss a final examination should contact their instructor.
The Grading System
Credit Hour Defined
The credit hour, sometimes called the semester hour, is the standard for computing the amount of a student's scholastic work. A credit hour is normally defined as one lecture, recitation, or other class exercise of 50 minutes per week per semester. Two 50 minute periods of laboratory or studio work are frequently equivalent to one credit hour. Three or four 50-minute periods of clinical or fieldwork in some areas are equivalent to one credit hour.
Earned credit hours are those that a student receives by successfully passing a course. Attempted credit hours indicate the amount of work the student attempted without reference to grades received. The hours for any course with a final grade other than "W" (withdrawal) or "AU" (audit) are included in attempted credit hours. Attempted credit hours (with the exception of pass no pass courses) are used in computing a student's scholastic average or standing.
Grades and Credit Points
Letter grades and plus/minus indicators (suffixes) are used by instructors to indicate a student's quality of achievement in a given academic course. The letter grades A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, C-, D+, D, F, WF are assigned the following credit points for purposes of grade point average (GPA) calculations: A = 4.0; A- = 3.67; B+ = 3.33; B = 3.00; B- = 2.67; C+ = 2.33; C = 2.00; C- = 1.67; D+ = 1.33; D = 1.00; F = 0; WF = 0.
A student taking an elective course "pass/no pass" must receive a grade of C- or higher in order to earn a passing grade (P) for the course. Credit hours for which the student earns a grade of "P" will count toward graduation, but there is no grade computed in the grade point average. A student who receives a grade of D+ or lower in a course taken on the Pass-No Pass Option (see below) will receive a non-passing grade of "NP." Credit hours for which the student earns a grade of "NP" will not count toward graduation, and the grade will not be computed in the grade point average.
A grade of "W" indicates official withdrawal from a course with permission of the student's dean through the allowed withdrawal period (see academic calendar for dates). The grade "W" is not counted in computation of academic standing as either attempted or earned credit hours, nor calculated in the grade point average. A grade of "WF" indicates withdrawal from a class without proper authorization at any time and is also assigned for withdrawal after the approval deadline (see academic calendar for dates). A course with "WF" is counted as attempted credit hours in the computation of academic standing and is calculated as "F" (0 credit points) in the grade point average.
A grade of "I" indicates the course is still incomplete. "I" grades are assigned by the student's instructor and must be removed within six weeks of the start of the subsequent term; otherwise the incomplete is converted into a "F" grade.
NR: The notation of "NR" is assigned in instances where the student is registered at Loyola but never attended the course in question and never completed any work for the course.
Quality Points Defined
Quality points are determined by multiplying letter grade credit point value by the credit hours of a course. If a student earns the grade of "A" in a 3-credit hour course, he or she has earned a total of 12 quality points for the course (4 credit points for the "A" multiplied by 3 credit hours for the course). A student who earns a "B+" for a three credit-hour course, therefore, earns a total of 9.99 quality points for the course. Courses in which "F" or "WF" is earned are counted in the total attempted credit hours and receive zero quality hours.
Pass No-Pass Option
The primary objective of the pass no-pass option is to encourage students in good standing to explore and experiment in academic areas outside their major or minor field. Students should be aware that the appearance of "P" and "NP" grades on their transcripts may have an adverse effect on changing their major or minor curriculum, transferring to other schools, and acceptance by graduate or professional schools. The following conditions govern this option:
- This option is available to a junior or senior student in good standing who has satisfied the course prerequisites (or has the written permission of the course instructor). First year students and sophomores may take certain physical education and military science courses under the pass-fail option with permission of their academic dean or the Director of University Advising.
- A maximum of twelve credit hours may be taken under the pass fail option during a student's undergraduate career; the credits will be included in the total number of hours earned toward graduation, but will not enter into the computation of cumulative grade point average. A student may take a maximum of two courses under this option in any academic term. Grades of "P" for advanced placement courses that are accepted as transfer credit are not included in the 12-credit-hour total.
- Only electives can be taken under the pass no-pass option. Permission will not be given for core, major or minor course requirements.
- The grades of "P" and "NP" will appear on the official record of the student's work taken at Loyola University, and may not be converted to any other grade. In the case of a change in a major or minor, the utilization of a course in which the student has already received a grade of "P" toward the requirements of the new major or minor will be at the discretion of the department concerned.
- The pass no-pass option may be selected by a student only during the first two weeks of the semester or the first week of a summer session. Once this option is chosen, a return to the regular grading system can only be accomplished during the first two weeks of the semester or the first week of a summer session.
- Credit hours earned under this option will not be included in the minimum of 64 graded Loyola hours that must be completed to be eligible for academic honors at graduation.
Students wishing to take a course without receiving credit may audit the course, for which applicable tuition will be charged. Class attendance is required of auditors. If they do not attend class, the final grade of "W" will be assigned. Assignments, including examinations and term papers, are not required, but auditors have the right to participate in class discussion. A course which is audited does not count as hours attempted. A course may not be converted to audit status after the first two weeks of the semester or the first week of a summer session.
Computation of Academic Grade Point Averages
The academic grade point average (GPA) at the end of a term is determined by dividing the total number of quality points earned by the total number of attempted graded credit hours carried in the term. Courses taken under the Pass - No Pass Option are not counted in computing academic averages. For example, consider a student taking 15 credit hours for a semester:
|Course||Credit Hrs||Grade||Credit Points||Quality Points|
|UCWR 110||3 hrs||C+||2.33||6.99|
|ENGL 273||3 hrs||B-||2.67||8.01|
|MATH 100||3 hrs||P||0.00||0.00|
|PLSC 101||3 hrs||B+||3.33||9.99|
|HIST 103||3 hrs||B||3.00||9.00|
This student has 12 graded hours. The total Quality Points are 33.99. To compute the semester average, quality points are divided by total graded hours. The average here is 2.83. The cumulative grade point average is figured by adding each semester's quality points and dividing by the total number of graded credit hours.
Courses with the grade of "I" are not counted in the total credit hours until they have been replaced by a permanent final grade. If the grade of "I" is not replaced with a permanent final grade within six weeks of the following semester, the "I" will be replaced automatically at the end of that period with a grade of "WF" and this grade will be computed into the academic average.
No grades earned by a student for courses taken at a college other than Loyola or at a program or college not formally affiliated with Loyola shall be computed into Loyola's term or cumulative grade point averages. Transfer credit will count toward the number of hours required for graduation from Loyola, but will not be reflected on grade reports under cumulative average.
Loyola University Chicago understands education to be a process of academic development and growth; therefore academic progress is an important element in an individual's life at the university. The university has instituted formal procedures for warning and ultimately dismissing those who are not progressing as required. Academic probationary status and even academic dismissal should be understood as necessary, although unfortunate, consequences for those students directly involved. During the period of academic probation no student will be allowed to represent the university publicly. Any exception to this restriction must come explicitly from the student's academic dean. The student's academic dean determines when a student is placed on academic probation or dismissed for academic reasons.
Generally, academic standing is determined using a basic grade point average (GPA) criteria. Students must maintain a grade point average of at least 2.00 to be in good academic standing. Graduation from the university requires at least a 2.00 average for all coursework attempted and a minimum of a least a 2.00 average in a student's major.
Note - some majors have additional GPA requirements. Students must check with their major department to learn of the minimum grade point guidelines.
There are 2 types of academic probation - Academic Standing and Progress Toward a Degree.
Any student whose cumulative GPA falls below 2.00 and who has a Quality Point Deficit of between 1 and 14 points will be placed on probation. Quality Point Deficit refers to the number of Quality Points below a 2.00 GPA on a student's record. For example, a student who has completed 34 semester hours with a 2.00 GPA has 68 Quality Points. A Quality Point Deficit refers to the number of quality points below 68. This formula is the same for any number of semester hours completed - 2.00 times the number of semester hours equals the minimum Quality Point Standard.
Students may also be placed on probation for not making progress toward degree completion. Any student whose cumulative GPA is 2.00 or better but who fails to show timely progression toward completion of his/her degree requirements may, at the discretion of his/her dean, be placed on probation. In such cases, the dean may require a contract defining the terms under which the student can remove him/herself from probation.
Continued on Probation
Any student who achieves a term GPA of at least 2.33 during the probationary semester, while not yet achieving a cumulative GPA of 2.00, will be continued on probation.
Any student who is placed on probationary status more than one time will be allowed only one semester in which to return to good standing. If the student does not return to good standing at the end of that probationary semester, he/she may be dismissed for poor scholarship.
Dismissal for Poor Scholarship
Any student who has a quality point deficit of 15 or more points, even if he/she has not had a previous semester of probationary status, may be dismissed for poor scholarship. Any student who fails to achieve a term GPA of at least 2.33 for the probationary semester (unless he/she restores his/her cumulative GPA to a minimum of 2.00 at the end of that semester) will be dismissed for poor scholarship.
The basic commitment of a university is to search for and to communicate the truth as it is honestly perceived. The university could not accomplish its purpose in the absence of this demanding standard. To the extent that this standard is respected, a genuine learning community can exist. Students of this university are called upon to know, to respect, and to practice this standard of personal honesty.
Plagiarism is a serious form of violation of this standard. Plagiarism is the appropriation for gain of ideas, language, or work of another without sufficient public acknowledgement and appropriate citation that the material is not one's own. It is true that every thought probably has been influenced to some degree by the thoughts and actions of others. Such influences can be thought of as affecting the ways we see things and express all thoughts. Plagiarism, however, involves the deliberate taking and use of specific words and ideas of others without proper acknowledgement of the sources.
The faculty and administration of Loyola University Chicago wish to make it clear that the following acts are regarded as serious violations of personal honesty and the academic ideal that binds the university into a learning community:Submitting as one's own:
- Material copied from a published source: print, internet, CD-ROM, audio, video, etc.
- Another person's unpublished work or examination material.
- Allowing another or paying another to write or research a paper for one's own benefit.
- Purchasing, acquiring, and using for course credit a pre-written paper.
The critical issue is to give proper recognition to other sources. To do so is both an act of personal, professional courtesy and of intellectual honesty.
Plagiarism on the part of a student in academic work or dishonest examination behavior will result minimally in the instructor assigning the grade of "F" for the assignment or examination. In addition, all instances of academic dishonesty must be reported to the chairperson of the department involved. The chairperson may constitute a hearing board to consider the imposition of sanctions in addition to those imposed by the instructor, including a recommendation of expulsion, depending upon the seriousness of the misconduct.
Academic cheating is another serious act that violates academic integrity. Obtaining, distributing, or communicating examination materials prior to the scheduled examination without the consent of the teacher; providing information to or obtaining information from another student during the examination; attempting to change answers after the examination has been submitted; and falsifying medical or other documents to petition for excused absences all are violations of the integrity and honesty standards of the examination process.
In the case of multiple instances of academic dishonesty across departments, the academic dean of the student's college may convene a hearing board. Students retain the right to appeal the decision of the hearing board to the academic dean of the college in which they are registered. The decision of the dean is final in all cases except expulsion. The sanction of expulsion for academic dishonesty may be imposed only by the Provost upon recommendation of the dean.
Academic Grievance Procedure
In order to provide a forum for the fair resolution of academic disputes involving individual student complaints of the appropriateness of course grades and accusations of academic dishonesty, the following procedure has been developed and will be applied to all cases involving Loyola undergraduate students.Students should be aware that in cases in which a grade is disputed, the grade will be changed by the dean only if the grading:
- is found to be in significant violation of clearly established written college policies or
- is a result of improper procedures or
- is found to be capricious. Capricious grading is the assignment of a grade to a student which is based partially or entirely on criteria other than the student's performance in the course; based on standards different from those standards of grading applied to other students registered in the same course; or based on a substantial departure from the announced grading standards for the course.
Pre Hearing Procedure
- In all cases, a sincere attempt should be made by the student to resolve the problem by discussion with his/her professor.
- If that attempt fails the student should make a written request for a hearing to the chairperson of the department within one month after the beginning of the following semester (excluding the summer sessions). The request for a hearing must specify the nature of the dispute and the attempts to resolve the matter.
- When a student is accused of plagiarism or dishonest examination behavior, the chairperson of the department may constitute a hearing board to review the evidence of academic dishonesty in those cases where the student denies that dishonesty occurred as well as to consider the imposition of additional sanctions beyond failure in the course.
- Each department shall have either a standing hearing board or have the means to constitute a hearing board for each dispute. Such boards will be chosen by the chairperson of the department and will consist of between three and five faculty members other than the involved faculty member or chairperson of the department. In smaller departments, board members may be members of different departments, and the board members may be chosen by the dean of the appropriate school.
- The chairperson of each hearing board shall be selected by the person who appoints the hearing board. The chairperson of the hearing board receives all requests for hearings from the department, sets the calendar, notifies all board members and involved parties of the dates and times of hearings and informs students by written notice of the recommendations of the board.
- After receiving a request for a hearing, the chairperson of the hearing board shall establish a date and time for the hearing and notify the student and faculty involved and the other members of the board in writing. The student will receive written notice of any charges of academic dishonesty to be considered.
- The hearing will be held within two weeks of the receipt of the request for a hearing if practicable.
- The hearing will be private and all persons present at the hearing will consider all information presented to be confidential. If, however, the student disseminates information disclosed during the hearing, the student's interest in the confidentiality of the hearing will be deemed waived.
- Both the student and the faculty member involved may request assistance in presenting his/her case at the hearing by any member of the university community other than an attorney. The individual must inform the chairperson of the hearing board of the names of his/her representatives and any witnesses before the hearing date.
- Individuals appearing before the hearing board have the responsibility of presenting truthful information, and the board in reaching its decision will evaluate the credibility of the witnesses.
- Presentation of evidence will only be made during the hearing. The board may address questions to any party or witness. Any party may present witnesses or other evidence. The conduct of the hearing is informal, and the board is not bound by rules of evidence or court procedures. Matters of procedure will be decided by the chairperson of the hearing board.
- All decisions of the board will be determined by a majority vote of the members present. The student and faculty member involved will be informed in writing by the chairperson of the hearing board of the board's decision within two weeks of the hearing.
The student may appeal the decision of the hearing board in writing to the dean of the appropriate school, or the dean's designee, within thirty days of notice of the hearing board's decision. The dean or dean's designee may approve, modify, or reverse the decision of the board and will notify the student of his/ her decision within two weeks of receiving the appeal if practicable. In those cases where the appeal was heard by the dean's designee, the student may have a final appeal to the dean if a request in writing is made within 30 days of the designee's decision. The decision of the dean is final in all cases except expulsion. The sanction of expulsion for academic dishonesty may be imposed only by the Provost upon recommendation of the dean.
Credit Hour Limitation
Students may not carry more than 18 credit hours in one semester without approval of their dean the Director of University Advising.
First year students and sophomores ordinarily are not given permission to carry excess hours.
Students on academic probation may be required to reduce their number of semester hours.
Students with outside employment are urged to carry reduced programs of study so as to ensure sufficient time for the academic preparation needed in obtaining their education.
Students who carry excess credit hours without the requisite permission may be denied the application of these credits toward their degree.
Repetition Of Courses
Students may repeat a course in which they previously received a passing grade only with the specific authorization of their academic dean or the Provost's Representative for Student Advising. Such repetition may be required if students received a "D+" or lower grade in a course in the major or minor field (e.g., biology courses only for biology majors), or if specific departmental regulations so require. Authorization to repeat courses merely to improve the grade will rarely be given. The grade in a repeated course does not replace the original grade earned. The grades in both courses are averaged together. For example, if a student received a D+ in a 3 hour course and a B- in the repeat, the quality points are added together (12.00) are divided by the total hours of both courses (6.00). This provides the course grade point (2.00). In an authorized repetition of a course the student will not receive credit hours toward graduation for both courses. The student will only receive credit hours toward graduation for equivalent to one of the courses (3 hours) since credit hours in the course have already been earned. The repeated course, however, is counted for attempted hours and quality points for the accurate computation of grade point average for the term in which it is taken. A student who repeats a course without permission of the dean earns neither credit hours nor quality points for the repeated course.
Enrollment in Courses
While academic advising is available the Office of University Advising and in each school and college, each student is responsible for developing an accurate and appropriate schedule of classes each term. Students are allowed to change their registrations in conformity with the guidelines established by the Office of Registration and Records and the Bursar's office. Students are responsible for maintaining the accuracy of their enrollment and understanding the academic and financial consequences of adding or withdrawing courses.
No one is permitted to attend any class without first officially registering for that class. Students may not register for classes after the late registration period. A fee is charged for late registration.
Registration at Loyola University Chicago is done through the LOCUS on-line registration system. For specific information on registration, please refer to www.luc.edu/regrec.
Registering for Courses at Another University or College
A degree candidate at Loyola University Chicago may not register for a course at another university or college during any term including summer except with the previous written consent of the appropriate dean, the Director of University Advising, or the Office of the Core Curriculum for core courses. Course work completed elsewhere without prior written permission will not be accepted for transfer credit. Transfer credit will not be accepted for courses taken elsewhere while the student is simultaneously enrolled at Loyola.
Students who are granted written permission to enroll in a course at another university will be issued a statement of good standing if the other institution requires it. This statement is not a transcript of record.
Transcripts of College Records
All official transcripts of Loyola University academic records are issued by the Office of Registration and Records. For specific instructions to obtain a transcript, please refer to www.luc.edu/regrec.
Withdrawal from the University
An enrolled student who wishes to withdraw from the university during any semester must notify the dean of his/her school either in person or in writing. A student is considered to be in attendance until such notice has been received by the dean the Director of University Advising. All financial refunds or obligations are dated from the date of the formal notice of withdrawal and not from the date of the last class attended (see Schedule of Classes for tuition refund policy). It is the student's obligation to inform the dean promptly of the intention to withdraw. Telephone messages and/or non attendance in class are not official notification.
A student may be required to withdraw from the university because of academic deficiency, lack of sufficient progress toward completion of degree requirements, failure to adhere to university requirements and/or degree requirements, failure to adhere to university requirements and regulations for conduct, or failure to meet financial obligations to the university.
Withdrawal from a Class
After the official late and change of registration period ends, official withdrawals from class are made only with the permission of the appropriate dean and according to the procedure for change in registration.
Students who withdraw from class because they stop attending class will receive the final grade of "WF," which is a penalty grade and equivalent to a grade of "F". Students will incur full financial obligation to the university. Voluntary and repeated unofficial withdrawals from class may result in the student being barred from further attendance in the university. Students may withdraw from class with the final grade of "W" through the first ten weeks of the semester or first four weeks of a summer term.
Students contemplating official withdrawal from a class and receiving or expecting to receive financial assistance should consult with the Office of Student Financial Assistance.
Students who have been called into the armed services of the United States and who are consequently withdrawing from the university before the end of the withdrawal period will receive a refund of all tuition and fees paid for the period in question but no academic credit. If they withdraw after the end of the withdrawal period, they will receive full academic credit for the semester with grades as of the date of withdrawal but no refund of tuition.
General University Academic Policies
University Core Curriculum
Every Loyola Undergraduate, regardless of college or school, will complete the University Core Curriculum. The Core Curriculum consists of 15 courses (45 credit hours) distributed over 10 Core Knowledge areas. Students will complete coursework in:
- Artistic Knowledge and Experience (1 course)
- Historical Knowledge (2 courses)
- Literary Knowledge and Experience (2 courses)
- Quantitative Analysis (1 courses)
- Scientific Literacy (2 courses)
- Societal and Cultural Knowledge (2 courses)
- Philosophical Knowledge (2 courses)
- Theological and Religious Studies Knowledge (2 courses)
- Ethics (1 course from the Philosophical or
- Theological areas)
- College Writing Seminar (1 course)
Each course that has been approved for the University Core Curriculum will reinforce one or more of the following skills: critical thinking; ethical awareness; oral, visual, and written communications; information literacy; quantitative or qualitative analysis and methods; and technological literacy.
Students' majors and minor can fulfill one or more areas of the Core Knowledge component. See www.luc.edu/core for specifics.
In addition to the Core Knowledge Areas, students must complete one course in each of 4 Values Across the Curriculum. Students will complete coursework in:
- Promoting Civic Engagement and Leadership
- Understanding Diversity in the United States or the World
- Understanding and Promoting Justice
- Understanding Spirituality or Faith in Action in the World
Students may complete the Values areas with an approved core courses (which complete both a Core area and a Values Across the Curriculum areas), an approved course from their major or minor; or an approved elective course.
For more information on the University Core Curriculum and to see the list of approved core courses by Core Knowledge and Values Across the Curriculum go to www.luc.edu/core.
University Core Curriculum Grade Requirements
Students must get a minimum of C- (1.67) in an approved University Core course to have that course count for Core credit. Students must have an overall average of 2.00 in all their core courses.
Required Hours and Grade Point Average for Graduation
Students must complete 128 hours to graduate. Student must have a minimum cumulative 2.00 GPA. They must also have a minimum cumulative 2.00 GPA in their Core Curriculum.
Most departments require a minimum 2.00 GPA in their major(s) and minor(s). Students must check with their department(s) for policy on the minimum GPA in the major and/or minor.
Students may complete two Bachelor of Arts degrees or two Bachelor of Science degrees within 128 hours. To do this, students must complete the Core requirements and the requirements of both academic majors.
Completing 2 Baccalaureate Degrees
Students may complete 2 Baccalaureate degrees within 128 hours. To do this, students must complete the Core requirements and the requirements of both baccalaureate degree programs.
Students who complete the requirements for a major leading to a Bachelor of Arts and a major leading to a Bachelor of Science in the College of Arts and Sciences will be awarded both a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Science.
Students can complete 2 Baccalaureate degrees between Colleges and Schools within 128 hours. This includes but is not limited to: BS/BSW; BS/BBA; BS/BBA; BA or BS/B.Ed; BSW/BBA; BA/BSN
In affiliation with various accredited engineering schools, Loyola University Chicago offers a Dual-Degree Program in Physics and Engineering, which enables a student to receive within five years, a B.S. degree in Physics from Loyola and a B.S. degree in Engineering from one of the affiliated schools. Students typically attend Loyola for three years of study in the physical sciences and liberal arts, and then complete the program with two more years at the engineering school. For more information see www.luc.edu/depts/physics/currp1.html
Dual Degree Programs
Loyola University offers undergraduate students the opportunity to complete a Baccalaureate degree and a Masters degree within 5 years. These include, but are not limited to: BBA/MSA in Accountancy; BBA/MBA; BBA/MS in Information Systems Management; B.B.A./M.S.I.M.C. Integrated Marketing Communications; B.S. in Biology/MBA; BS/MS in Criminal Justice; BS in Environmental Studies/MBA; BS/MS in Mathematics; BS in Mathematics/MS in Computer Science; BA/MA in Political Science; BS/MA in Applied Social Psychology; BA/MA in Sociology; BSW/MSW.
The Loyola School of Law, in conjunction with the College of Arts and Sciences, offers a 6 year Baccalaureate/Juris Doctor that provides an opportunity for a limited number of exceptionally well qualified Loyola students to enter the School of Law after completing their junior year of undergraduate study and taking the LSAT (the Law School Admission Test). Students participating in this accelerated admission program attain their bachelor's degree following successful completion of the first year of law school and their law degree (Juris Doctor) after completing all of their law school studies. Careful and early planning is needed to achieve accelerated admission. Students should see the pre-law advisor during their freshman year to plan accordingly.
A student who earns a cumulative Loyola GPA of at least 3.50 will be graduated cum laude (with honors); of at least 3.70, magna cum laude (with high honors); of at least 3.90, summa cum laude (with highest honors). For the purpose of calculating the grade point average (GPA), averages are NOT rounded, i.e., 3.49 is not rounded to 3.50. Laudatory status requires exactly 3.50 or better. Transfer students must complete a minimum of 64 graded Loyola hours (excluding pass-no pass) to be eligible for academic honors. Work completed at a program or college not formally affiliated with Loyola will not be counted. The computation is based on the student's entire academic career at Loyola.
Laudatory status for the degree will be based on certification of all requirements and may differ from the status announced at graduation ceremonies if degree requirements are not certified at the time of the ceremony.
For academic honors conferred by individual schools or departments within schools, consult appropriate sections of this catalog.