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Loyola University Chicago

Faculty Center for Ignatian Pedagogy

Sharing Rubrics

Rubric Creation and Sharing

(Adapted from http://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/rubrics.htm)

What is a Rubric?

A rubric can be defined as “a scoring scale used to assess student performance along a task-specific set of criteria” (Mueller, 2010). A rubric is a criterion-referenced measure, meaning that mastery or success is determined by how performance aligns with a set of pre-selected skills and/or knowledge.

Rubric Mechanics

As a rule, “each rubric has at least two criteria and at least two levels of performance” (2010). A common rubric construction includes: pre-set criteria (skills and/or knowledge) listed on the left side of the grid, standards for what merits a certain level of performance in each grid cell, and levels of performance across the top of the grid.

General rubric layout:

Assignment Title


Lowest level of performance

Progressively higher level

Progressively higher level

Highest level of performance

Criteria #1

Standards for criteria #1 at lowest level of performance

Standards for criteria #1 at second lowest level of performance

Standards for criteria #1 at second highest level of performance

Standards for criteria #1 at highest level of performance

Criteria #2

See above

See above

See above

See above

Criteria #3

See above

See above

See above

See above

A very basic example rubric:

Research Report






Frequent grammatical and punctuation errors

Some grammatical and punctuation errors

Few grammatical and punctuation errors


Used fewer than 4 references

Used 4 references

Used more than 4 references

Rubrics are formative by nature; they can be strictly formative or a combination of formative and summative if grading is involved. When used for grading, the total number of points can be determined in a variety of ways, including:

Levels of Performance

Levels of performance in a rubric are used to determine how a student performed on a given skill or knowledge area. In the example rubric, the three levels of performance are “poor,” “good,” and “excellent.” They provide:


Types of Rubrics

Analytic rubric (refer to "Research Report" rubric for an example)

Holistic rubric

3—Excellent Researcher

  • included 10–12 sources
  • no apparent historical inaccuracies
  • can easily tell which sources information was drawn from
  • all relevant information is included

2—Good Researcher

  • included 5–9 sources
  • few historical inaccuracies
  • can tell with difficulty where information came from
  • bibliography contains most relevant information

1—Poor Researcher

  • included 1–4 sources
  • lots of historical inaccuracies
  • cannot tell from which source information came
  • bibliography contains very little information

(From http://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/rubrics.htm)

A more detailed example of and guidelines on holistic rubrics is Facione and Facione’s "Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric," which can be found at http://www.insightassessment.com/content/download/1078/6171/file/Rubric%2520HCTSR.pdf.

After the Rubric is Completed


Mueller, J. (2010). Rubrics. Retrieved from http://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/rubrics.htm.


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