Loyola University Chicago

School of Law

Full-Time Faculty

Robert John Araujo, S.J.

Title/s: John Courtney Murray, S.J. University Professor

Office #: Corboy 1331

E-mail: raraujo@luc.edu


Upon completing military service as an officer in the United States Army, Fr. Araujo served as a trial attorney and attorney advisor in the Solicitor's Office of the United States Department of the Interior (1974-1979). In 1979 he joined the Law Department of The Standard Oil Company (Ohio) and served in a variety of capacities until 1985. After corporate service, he joined the general corporate department of a New England law firm and remained there until entering the Society of Jesus in 1986. Since 1997, he has served as an advisor to the Holy See providing counsel on issues dealing with public international law. He was a member of the law faculty at Gonzaga University from 1994-2005 and became the Robert Bellarmine, S.J. University Professor in American and Public International law; then he was Ordinary Professor, the Pontifical Gregorian University, 2005-2008. He has been a visiting Professor at Georgetown University Law Center; St. Louis University School of Law; and Boston College School of Law. In the academic year 2000-2001, he was the Stein Fellow at Fordham University Law School. During his graduate legal studies in New York, he was the Chamberlain Fellow at Columbia University School of Law.

He was appointed as the inaugural holder of the John Courtney Murray, S.J. University Professorship at Loyola University in July of 2009.

He is a contributor to the Mirror of Justice, a web log dedicated to the development of Catholic Legal Theory, http://www.mirrorofjustice.blogs.com.

He has authored numerous law review articles on topics that include jurisprudence, public international law, Constitutional law, and Catholic legal theory. He has coauthored a series of books on papal diplomacy and international organizations with the late Fr. John A. Lucal, S.J. In addition, he has contributed chapters to a number of volumes addressing topics in jurisprudence and public international law.


A.B., Georgetown University 
M.Div., S.T.L., Weston School of Theology
Ph.B., St. Michael's Institute
B.C.L., Oxford University
J.D., Georgetown University
LL.M., J.S.D., Columbia University

Program Areas

Law and Catholic Social Thought
Natural Law and Natural Rights
Statutory Interpretation

Selected Publications


English translation of Luigi Taparelli d'Azeglio's Saggio Teoretico di Diritto Naturale, with Marc O. DeGirolami. [two volume book series] in process.

Papal Diplomacy and International Organizations: The Quest for Peace at the United Nations-from Pius XII to Paul VI. with John Lucal, S.J. (2010), St. Joseph's University Press.

Papal Diplomacy and the International Organizations: The Quest for Peace at the League of Nations, with John Lucal, S.J., Sapientia Press (2004).

Book Chapters

The Roman Catholic Perspective on the Use of Force, in RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVES ON JUST WAR THEORY, Cambridge University Press, 2009.

The International Responsibility of International Organizations-In Memory of Oscar Schachter, general editor, Maurizio Ragazzi, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 2005.

Chapter 11, Essay Two, Marriage, Relationship, and International Law: The Incoherence of the Argument for Same-Sex Marriage and Reply to Prof. Wilet's Essay The Inexorable Momentum Toward National and International Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships, in Marriage and Same-Sex Relationships, in MARRIAGE AND SAME-SEX UNIONS: A DEBATE, edited by Lynn D. Wardle, Mark Strasser, William C. Duncan, and David Orgon Coolidge, Praeger, 2003.

The Constitution and the Common Good: A Catholic Perspective, Proceedings of the Catholic University, published in RECOVERING SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS: CATHOLIC PERSPECTIVES ON AMERICAN LAW, editors: Scaperlanda and Collett, (2006).

And Justice Shall Flourish In His Time, chapter on legal education and Jesuit institutions of higher learning appearing in PROMISE RENEWED: JESUIT HIGHER EDUCATION FOR A NEW MILLENNIUM, general editorship of Martin Tripole, S.J., Loyola Press, Chicago, 1999.


Same Sex Marriage-from Privacy to Equality: The Failure of the "Equality" Justifications for Same Sex Marriage, ___ Boston College International and Comparative Law Review ___ (2010)

What is Equality?, 27 Quinnipiac Law Review 113 (2008-09)

Abortion-from Privacy to Equality: The Failure of the Justifications for Taking Human Life, 45 University of Houston Law Review 1737 (2008-09)

Forming the Well-Formed Conscience, 47 Journal of Catholic Legal Studies 219 (2008)

Conscience, Totalitarianism and the Positivist Mind, 77 Mississippi Law Journal 571 (2007)

John Paull II-A Man of God and A Servant of Man: The Pope at the United Nations, 5 Ave Maria Law Review 367 (2007)

The UN Declaration on Human Cloning, 7 The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 129 (2007)

John Paul II and the Rule of Law: Bringing Order to International Disorder, 45 Journal of Catholic Legal Studies 293 (2006)

The Impact of Catholic Teaching and the Call to Discipleship-in "Symposium on Law & Politics as Vocation," 20 Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy 29 (2006)

The Role of International Law in US Constitutional Law-A Question that Might Be Posed by John Courtney Murray: Is It Really Law?, 4 Journal of Catholic Social Thought 35 (2006)

Canon law society of Italy-"The US and Vatican Relations in the Absence of a Concordat", July 2006-appears in published proceedings

Vedovato symposium, the Gregorian-"Information and the Meaning of Family, The Basic Unit of Society", May 2006-appears in published proceedings

The Transnational Perspective of the Church-the Embryonic Cloning Debate & Stem Cell Research, 22 Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy 497 (2006)

A Forerunner for International Organizations: The Holy See and the Community of Christendom-With Special Emphasis on the Medieval Papacy, XX Journal of Law and Religion 305 (2005)

Implementation of the ICJ Advisory Opinion-Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory: Fences [Do Not] Make Good Neighbors?, 22 Boston University Journal of International Law 349 (2004)

The Church and the International Legal Order: The Lens of "Pacem in Terris," 66/67 NOTES ET DOCUMENTS, Institute International Jacques Maritain, Nouvell Série, Janvier-Août 2003, pp. 11-29

The Meaning of Person in the Context of Human Embryonic Cloning-Evolving Challenges for the Rule of Law in the International Order, 1 ST. THOMAS LAW REVIEW 39 (2003)

Rio + 10 and the World Summit on Sustainable Development: Why Human Beings Are At the Center of Concern, 2 GEORGETOWN JOURNAL OF LAW & PUBLIC POLICY 201 (2004) 

The Catholic Neo-Scholastic Contribution to Human Rights: The Natural Law Foundation, 1 AVE MARIA LAW REVIEW 159 (2003) 

A Judicial Response to Terrorism: The Status of Military Commissions Under Domestic and International Law, 11 TULANE JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW 117 (2003)

The Establishment of the International Criminal Court: The Concept and the Reality, EVANGILE ET JUSTICE, Belgium, March, 2002

International Law Clients: The Wisdom of Natural Law, 28 FORDHAM URBAN L. J. 1751 (2001)

Sovereignty, Human Rights, and Self-Determination: The Meaning of International Law, 24 FORDHAM J. INT'L L. 1477 (2001)

The International Personality and Sovereignty of the Holy See, 50 CATH. U. L. REV. 291 (2001)

Realizing A Mission: Teaching Justice as Right-Relationship, 74 ST. JOHN'S L. REV. 591 (2000)

American Bar Association Red Mass Homily, 40 TH CATHOLIC LAWYER 97 (2000)

Justice As Right Relationship: A Philosophical and Theological Reflection on Affirmative Action, 27 PEPPERDINE LAW REVIEW 377 (2000)

International Tribunals and Rules of Evidence: The Case for the Priest-Penitent Privilege, 15 AM. U. INT'L L. REV.639 (2000) 

And God's Justice Shall Become Ours: Reflections on Teaching Law In A Catholic University, 11 REGENT L. REV. 37 (1999), co-authored with prof. David K. DeWolf

Ex Corde Ecclesiae and Mission-Centered Hiring in Roman Catholic Colleges and Universities: To Boldly Go Where We Have Gone Before, 25 J. COLLEGE & UNIVERSITY L. 835 (1999)

The Lawyer's Duty to Promote the Common Good: The Virtuous Law Student and Teacher, 40 SO. TEX. L. REV. 83 (1999)

Method in Interpretation: Practical Wisdom and the Search for Meaning in Public Legal Texts, 68 MISSISSIPPI LAW JOURNAL 225 (1998)

Critical Race Theory: Contributions to and Problems for Race Relations, 32 GONZAGA L. REV. NO. 3 (1997)

Anti-Personnel Mines and Peremptory Norms of International Law, 30 VANDERBILT J. TRANSNATIONAL LAW 1 (1997)

The Virtuous Lawyer: Paradigm and Possibility, 50 SOUTHERN METHODIST L. REV. 433 (1997)

"The Harvest Is Plentiful, But the Laborers Are Few": Hiring Practices in Religiously Afflicted Institutions, 30 U. RICHMOND L. REV. 713 (1996)

Humanitarian Juriprudence: The Quest for Civility, 40 SAINT LOUIS L. J. 715 (1996)

Thomas Aquinas: Prudence, Justice, and the Law, 40 LOY. L. REV. 897 (1995)

Political Theory and Liberation Theology: The Intersection of Unger and Gutierrez, 11 J. LAW & RELIGION 63 (1994-95)

Contemporary Interpretation of the Religion Clauses: The Church and Caesar Engaged in Conversation, 10 J. LAW & RELIGION 493 (1993-94)

Moral Issues and the Virtuous Judge: Nomination and Confirmation of Supreme Court Justices-From O'Connor to Thomas, 35 J. CHURCH & STATE NO. 3 (1993)

Christian Social Thought and American Public Policy: A Dialogue Between the Laity and the American State, 35 J. CHURCH & STATE NO. 3 (1993)

Abortion, Ethics, and the Common Good, 76 MARQ. L. REV. 701 (1993)

A Dialogue Between the Church and Caesar: A Contemporary Interpretation of the Religion Clauses, 34 B. C. . REV. (1993)

Legislative Intent: Fact or Fiction, 29 THE ADVOCATE: SUFFOLK UNIVERSITY LAW SCHOOL JOURNAL 30 (1992)

Vatican II: The Impact on American Society-The Pas de Deux Between Rights and Responsibilities, 35 CATH. LAWYER 109 (1993)

Legal Education and Jesuit Universities: Mission and Ministry in the Society of Jesus?, 37 LOY. L. REV. 245 (1991)

The Teleology of the Law: Responsible Citizenship and Discipleship, 35 CATH. LAWYER 57 (1992)

The Teaching Authority of the Church and American Society: A Voice Crying in the Wilderness, 34 CATH. LAWYER 143 (1991)

The Use of Legislative History in Statutory Interpretation: A Recurring Question-Clarification or Confusion?, 16 SETON HALL LEGIS. J. 551 (1992)

The Use of Legislative History in Statutory Interpretation, 15 SETON HALL LEGIS. J. 17 (1990)

Suggestions for A Foundation Course in Legislation, 15 SETON HALL LEGIS. J. 17 (1990)

Fetal Jurisprudence: A Debate In The Abstract, 33 CATH. LAWYER 2003 (1990)


Selective Presentations

Society of Catholic Social Scientists, Tenth Annual Meeting, Ann Arbor, Michigan, October 19, 2002,International Efforts to Regulate Human Cloning-Present at the Creation.

Washington State Bar Association-World Peace through Law Section, Ralph Bunche Award Luncheon Presentation, "The International Criminal Court-Bright Promises and Dark Shadows." January 24 2003.

Gregorian University-Rome, Italy, The Holy See in the International Juridicial Order, at the Symposium The Church and the International Order sponsored by the Gregorian and the International Jacques Maritain Institute. May 23-24, 2003.

University of St. Thomas symposium honoring Judge John Noonan, The Nature and Meaning of Person and the Rule of Law-The International Context, October 18, 2003.

The Annual Tucker Lecture: Gonzaga University, Jesuit Universities and the International Order, November 17, 2003. 

St. Thomas More Society, Columbia University Law School, The United Nations and Catholic Moral Principles, February 23, 2004.

Across Borders Symposium, Gonzaga University School of Law, The Future of International Organizations-the Intersection and Conflict of the UN, the ICC, and the ICJ, March 27, 2004.

The Role of International Law in Constitutional Adjudication, John Courtney Murray Symposium-Villanova University, September 2005. 

The Place of Gonzaga in Florence in the Global Vision and Pedagogical Mission of Jesuit Higher Education, Presentation in Italian and English at Gonzaga in Florence, October 4, 2005.

Speaker to the American Benefactors, Pontifical Gregorian University, October 28, 2005-The Church in the International Order: the Role of Higher Education.

Invited participant, Interreligious Conference Among Abrahamic Religious (Judaism, Christianity, Islam), Grottaferrata, Italy, March 1-3,2006.

The Jurisprudence of John Paul II Symposium, John Paul II and the Rule of Law-Bringing Order to International Disorder, St. John's University, New York, March 23 & 24, 2006.

Vedovato Conference invited Speaker, Information and Society-The Meaning of Family in the International Community, Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, Italy, May 5, 2006.

The Role of International Organizations Today-Special Considerations about the New Human Rights Council, Gonzaga University in Florence, May 29, 2006.

Reflections on the Thinking of Jacques Maritain and his Contribution to the Evolution of Human Rights, Seton Hall University in Parma, June 19, 2006.

Canon Law Society of Italy, Speaker: Libertà Religiosa/Rapporti Chiesa-Società and Politiche-Il modello statunitense (Religious Freedom and Relations between the Church and Political Society-the Model of the United States), July 2006.

JPII and the Law Symposium at Ave Maria Law School, Ann Arbor, presenter: John Paul II at the United Nations, September 2006.

Lecture, Regensburg and Beyond: Pope Benedict and Religious Liberty, Boston College, March 15, 2007-lecture co-sponsored by the Law School Institute of Law and Religion and the Jesuit Institute.

Presenter paper, Conscience, Religious Liberty, and Totalitarianism, University of Portland, Garaventa Center for Catholic Intellectual Life and American Culture, symposium on The American Experiment: Religious Freedom Conference. April 12-14, 2007.

Presented a discussion paper at the 15th Annual Meeting of the Society of Catholic Social Scientists, St. John's University (New York), October 26, 2007-The Campaign for the International Right to Abortion in International Institutions.

Presented a paper at the Blackstone Fellows gathering, The intersection of International Law and Constitutional Law, June, 2008, Phoenix, AZ.

Presented a paper to the Alliance Defense Fund, The intersection of International Law and Constitutional Law, July, 2008, Hall Moon Bay, CA.

Presented a paper on Conscience in the European Union, July 2008, Rome, Italy, national litigation academy of US and international human rights lawyers.

Conscience and Modern (i.e., Democratic) Totalitarianism, delivered to the 31st Annual Convention of the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars symposium entitled "Conscience, Cooperation and Complicity," San Antonio, TX, September 26, 2008.

The Responsibility of Conscience, delivered at the 16th Annual Meeting of the Society of Catholic Social Scientists, DeSales University, Center Valley, PA, October 24, 2008.

Jesuit Colloquium on Papal Thought, paper entitled Benedict and the Virtues: The Social Doctrine, Georgetown University, June 7-10, 2009

Symposium on the Just War Tradition-The Catholic Perspective, Naples Florida (convened by the Peace Research Institute of Oslo and Ave Maria University), paper entitled The Rights and Wrongs of the Use of Force from World War I to the Iraq Conflict, June 25-27, 2009.