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Undergraduate Studies Catalog


Water Tower Campus:
Lewis Towers 900
Phone: 312-915-7564
FAX: 312-915-7650
www.luc.edu/depts/crim jus

Professor Emeritus: T. Frost

Professors: G.J. Bensinger, A.J. Lurigio (chairperson)

Associate Professors: J. Goldschmidt, M. Seng, L. Stalans, D. Struckhoff

Assistant Professor: D. Olson

The major in criminal justice is offered primarily at the Water Tower Campus.


The overarching objectives of the department are to provide 1) a broad liberal arts background that enhances the understanding and appreciation of all people; the awareness of group similarities and differences, especially those relating to culture and race; the significance of ethics, norms, and values in personal and social life as pertinent to criminal justice; 2) various educational resources in order to develop theoretical and practical knowledge of the structures, processes, and functions of the criminal justice institution stressing its links and interdependence with other institutions in the social system; 3) the opportunity to test interests and abilities in criminal justice through controlled involvement in operational settings (e.g., agency visits, field experiences, and research); 4) an integrated interdepartmental program in which students can explore and develop their interests and capacities to the fullest extent while fulfilling the requirements of the program; 5) stimulating and challenging courses in a rigorous academic program; and 6) a foundation for entering into demanding graduate or professional schools in criminal justice, law, social work, or any of the social sciences.


Requirements for the Major in Criminal Justice: 36 credit hours, including required courses CRMJ 131, 300, 305, 322, 335, and 355. CRMJ 131, a prerequisite for all other criminal justice courses, must be the first criminal justice course completed. A student who receives a "D+" or lower in 131 will be advised to major in a field other than criminal justice. CRMJ 355 must be taken in the senior year. Majors must also fulfill the following related course requirements: CMUN 101, SOCL 101, PSYC 101, PLSC 101.

Students majoring in criminal justice should obtain the Handbook for Undergraduate Majors from their faculty advisors. Not more than six courses (18 semester credit hours) in the major will be accepted in transfer from other schools. Additional courses in the major may transfer as general electives.

The senior-level internship (CRMJ 390) is limited to majors whose academic performance is judged adequate. Students may request (or may be invited to request) such an assignment as they approach the end of the junior year. If they receive written approval for the internship, a placement will be arranged by the faculty supervisor of the field internship course.

Requirements for the Minor in Criminal Justice: 18 credit hours, including: CRMJ 131, 300, 305, 322, 335, and one Criminal Justice elective. Formal application for a Criminal Justice minor should be done at the departmental office.

Requirements for the Interdisciplinary Minor in the Psychology of Crime and Justice: The minor requires six courses, including PSYC 372 and CRMJ 322. Psychology majors need four Criminal Justice and two Psychology courses (in addition to the twelve psychology classes for the major). Criminal Justice majors need four psychology and two Criminal Justice classes (in addition to the twelve Criminal Justice classes for the major). Non-majors need three psychology and three Criminal Justice classes.

Credit Hrs.
Criminal Justice
Communicative/expressive arts (CMUN 101)
English 105, 106
Foreign language
History 101, and any course from 102-107
Literature core
Mathematics core
Natural science core
Philosophy core
Social sciences (PLSC 101; PSYC 101; SOCL 101)
Theology core
Elective courses

Combined B.S./M.A. Program

An undergraduate criminal justice major with a cumulative GPA of at least 3.50 may apply for admission to the combined B.S./M.A. program, providing the student has completed the following with a GPA of at least 3.50: CRMJ 131, 300, 305, 322 and 335. A student admitted to the program must satisfy all the undergraduate degree requirements (128 credit hours, including core and major requirements). Students are required to consult with the Graduate Program Director prior to applying.

After being admitted into the program, students may apply up to nine (9) credit hours taken in the senior year toward the 36 graduate credit hours required for the M.A. degree. These nine credit hours must include two pre-approved 400-level courses and the capstone course, CRMJ 355.

Students must achieve at least a 3.00 GPA in all their graduate coursework and complete CRMJ 401, 402, 404, 407, 409 and 412 before taking the departmentís masterís program comprehensive examination.

Note: Generally, no graduate courses taken prior to admission into the combined B.S./M.A. program will count toward the graduate-level course requirement. Students wishing to enter this program will typically apply for admission during their junior year. To be accepted into the program, a student must exhibit satisfactory progress toward completion of the core requirements. Students should obtain an application form from The Graduate School. One letter of recommendation from a full-time faculty member of the Criminal Justice department and two letters of recommendation from other full-time faculty at Loyola are required as part of the application process.


Suggested Curriculum
Freshman Program      
First Semester Credit Hrs. Second Semester Credit Hrs.
English 105 3 English 106 3
History 101 3 History 102-107 3
Communication 101 3 Sociology 101 3
Philosophy 120 3 Natural science core 3
Theology core 3 Criminal Justice 131 3
  15   15

Sophomore Program
Criminal Justice 305 3 Criminal Justice 300 3
Literature core 3 Criminal Justice 322 3
Mathematics 3 Political Science 101 3
Philosophy (270ís) 3 Natural science core 3
Psychology 101 3 Theology core 3
    Philosophy (280ís) 3
  15   18
Junior Program      
Criminal Justice 300-level 3 Criminal Justice 300-level 3
Criminal Justice 335 3 Criminal Justice 300-level 3
Theology core 3 Literature core 3
Literature core 3 Foreign language 3
Foreign language 3 Natural science core 3
  15   15
Senior Program      
Criminal Justice 300-level 3 Criminal Justice 355 (may be taken for graduate credit) 3
Criminal Justice 401 or 402 3 Criminal Justice 412 3
Electives 11 Electives 12
  17   18
Fifth Year      
Criminal Justice 401 or 402 3 Criminal Justice 404 3
Criminal Justice 407 3 Criminal Justice 420 or 440 3
Criminal Justice 409 3 Criminal Justice 430 or 445 3
  9   9

One additional elective course and the thesis or practicum may be completed in summer or the following semester.


(All courses are 3 semester hours of credit.)

131. The Criminal Justice System.
An overview of the nature and purpose of government, law, and justice. Social control in society, especially law as a type of formal control. Reviews the procedures and personnel involved in the criminal justice system. Topical areas include: nature of crime and criminal responsibility; the criminal justice system from apprehension through corrections and release; the adversary system; the roles of professionals; and the interrelationships among law enforcement, judicial, correctional, and rehabilitative components.

300. Principles of Criminal Behavior.
Explores basic questions concerning human nature, behavior, crime, and criminality; the controversies concerning determinism and free will, personal and social responsibility, and crime as deviant or normal behavior. Starting with early attempts to explain crime in classical and positivist schools of thought, various approaches to criminology are traced, compared, and evaluated in the light of contemporary knowledge. Types of crime and criminal careers, recidivism, trends in crime, and likely future developments in crime control are also considered.

301. Principles of Delinquent Behavior.
Major aspects of juvenile delinquency; causation and prevention theories; juvenile justice system components; emerging legal and philosophical issues; and the future of the juvenile justice system. Analysis of family, school, community, gender, and other factors as they effect delinquent behavior.

302. The Juvenile Justice System.
The social and justice system mechanisms (agencies) employed to deal with delinquent and status offenders. Starting with an analysis of the reasons for and history of the Juvenile Court, proceeding to how police, courts, corrections and alternative modalities are used to cope with delinquency and quasi-delinquency (status offenders, neglect and dependency).

305. Municipal Police Operations.
The nature and purpose of policing in American society with a particular emphasis on municipal police operations. Topics include identification of the urban police function, contemporary American police systems, principles of police organization and administration, basic operational methodology, impact of unionization on the police function, and efforts to professionalize.

308. Civil Disorder and Police Response.
Participants in social movements have exercised their constitutional rights to assemble, protest, and seek redress of grievances. Police have the professional tasks of protecting the rights of protesters and assuring the peace and safety of all citizens. Confrontations have, at times, led to violence. Special commissions have been appointed to investigate the socio-historical causes, precipitating and escalating factors, and police responses. This course examines in depth a broad sampling of these events and issues.

309. Private Security Administration.
A general introduction to the fundamental concepts, characteristics, and operational techniques of private security, its relationship to professional law enforcement, as well as to protective security law. Particular emphasis is placed on risk analysis and security techniques as they relate to specific institutions and operations.

310. Contemporary Police Issues.
Covers contemporary issues in policing concerning retention and recruitment, training and education, innovations in policing strategies, professionalism and ethics.

315. Criminal Justice Research.
An introduction to the logic and basic concepts of social research, with emphasis on the criminal justice sub-systems. Scientific method, research design, and theory are explored. Causality, experimentation, evaluation research, and sampling are presented in the context of criminal justice.

316. Criminal Justice Statistics. (SOWK 391)
This course is designed to promote understanding of statistical analysis used in the study of delinquency, crime and the criminal justice system. Topics include: univariate statistics, bivariate linear regression, correlation, selected multivariate techniques, statistical inference and tests of significance. The appropriate use of these statistics will be stressed.

322. Criminal Courts and Procedures I.
An overview of the development of federal, state, and local criminal courts: their structure, administration, case flow, and interrelationships with other components of the criminal justice system. The functions and activities of court personnel are also examined. An overview of criminal procedures: investigations, search and seizure, stops, arrests, pretrial hearing, plea bargaining, and jury trials. Finally, the development of criminal law and its application are discussed.

323. Criminal Courts and Procedures II.
Prerequisite: 322.
An in-depth and sophisticated coverage of criminal procedures from formal charging through the appeals of outcomes with focus on the major substantive, evidentiary, and procedural laws surrounding detention, trial, sentencing, and post-conviction matters (i.e., appeals, outcomes, litigation on the treatment of prisoners).

325. Issues in Criminal Justice.
The in-depth study of various current issues: race, crime and justice; criminal justice-the consumerís perspective; capital punishment; Americaís prisons; dissent; and the dynamics of democracy.

335. Corrections in America.
An overview of corrections with discussions of probation and parole and a focus on correctional institutions-their history, purpose, performance and present problems. Study of assumptions that have guided American correctional practice as well as those that form its present functioning.

337. Criminal Motivation.
Examines some current typologies (profiles) used to understand crime and criminals. This course is highly analytical in its approach. Depth of analysis is sought in discussions and term papers. Beginning with an analysis of causation, motives and typologies, the course moves through a series of types of crime and acknowledges that competing views can be found in criminosynthetic theory and in biopsychosocial approaches. Discussion of cases to illustrate the various typologies will comprise the final segment of the course and enable the student to synthesize materials learned earlier in the course.

338. Alternatives to Imprisonment.
Stricter laws, higher levels of violence, harsher crime control policies, and longer sentences are among the conditions that have produced great increases in the prison population and renewed interest in alternatives to imprisonment. This course studies the wide range of alternatives at all stages of the criminal justice system for both adults and juveniles. Emphasis on theory and practice of diversion programs such as youth service bureaus, deferred prosecution, and police-social worker teams; bail alternatives; and programs such as probation, parole, furloughs and halfway houses, examined within the conceptual framework of community-based corrections.

350. Philosophical Foundations of Criminal Justice.
The conflict between the utilitarian rationale of punishment and deterrence and the deontological rationale of punishment as retribution; classic and recent arguments for and against civil disobedience; terrorism, revolutionary ethics, and the political prisoner; the alternatives of repression and anarchy; nonpenal forms of coercion in our political/legal system; morality and judicial reasoning.

351. Organized Crime.
An introduction to organized crime; its development in America, particularly in Illinois; the industries of organized crime, its criminal enterprises and its involvement in business and labor; techniques employed by organized crime. Discussion of the problems confronting law enforcement as well as the various government strategies to counteract it.

352. Gang Activity and Control.
Historical development of urban street gangs with a view toward understanding their structures, characteristics, purposes and activities. Prevention and control strategies and programs in Chicago and other parts of the nation.

353. White Collar Crime.
An overview of corruption in our major social institutions, especially business and government. Socio-historical treatment of the origin, development, and ramifications of white collar crime. White collar crime is a form of social deviance or social conformity; similarities and differences in comparison with "conventional" and violent forms of criminal behavior. Public responses as reflected by peer or in-group loyalties and variations in sentences for white collar versus other crimes; future remedies, solutions, or improved controls.

354. Chicago Justice: The Criminal Justice System in Cook County.
The organization and functions of the criminal and juvenile justice systems in Cook County óthe largest jurisdiction of its kind in the U.S. Starting with a general historical and philosophical framework for the system of justice, specific attention is directed to the law enforcement, prosecution, judicial and correctional agencies with jurisdiction in Cook County. Students are provided with first-hand observation and experience of the system-in-process.

355. The Criminal Justice System-Senior Capstone.
Prerequisites: senior standing, nine criminal justice courses. The capstone course for graduating criminal justice majors. A review of the essential elements in previous courses, with an integration of knowledge to allow students to understand the principles and theories that guide U.S. practices. Students are required to study and report on criminal justice issues that are frequently of concern to the public and to place such issues in proper perspective.

360. Drug Abuse Control.
A comprehensive overview of the problems posed to the criminal justice system by the abuse of drugs in the U.S. Theories of drug addiction, types of drug classification, responses by medical and legal authorities, and approaches to mitigation or solution of the problems. Against the background of ethical and constitutional issues, the inherent conflict of personal responsibility vs. addictive dependence and criminal sanctions vs. treatment proposals are also explored in depth.

370. Women in the Criminal Justice System. (WOST 395)
The course examines four areas relative to women in the criminal justice system: the historical view; women as defendants in criminal cases and women in prison; women as victims of domestic violence and sexual assault; and women as professionals in the system (police officers, attorneys, judges, correctional officers).

371. Victims and the Criminal Justice System.
A broad overview of the historical and contemporary role of victims in the criminal justice system. Constitutional, legislative, executive, and judicial remedies designed to ameliorate the effects of crime on victims and the implications of these interventions for law enforcement, judicial, and private sector service organizations. "Special victims" groups and their need for recovery and reconciliation pursuant to their role in the criminal justice system and society.

372. Crime, Race and Violence. (BWS 372) (PLSC 372)
The course examines the intellectual and policy debates on racial differences in crime and violence in the United States and whether racial bias occurs in the administration of "justice."

373. Domestic Violence. (WOST 392)
Two theoretical perspectives on domestic violence, family violence and feminist theory are used to examine the prevalence and origins of domestic violence. Focuses primarily on responses to domestic violence by the police, prosecutors, legislators, community, and victims and on menís violence against women. The effects of domestic violence on children and treatment programs for children are also covered.

375. Introduction to Law. (PLSC 214)
Prerequisite: sophomore standing.
Study of the law in society, including the structure of legal systems, the constitutional foundations of legal systems, the practices of the legal profession, and the substance of selected areas of case law.

390. Field Practicum.
For majors judged adequate for placement. The primary purpose is to enhance the studentís development and learning through observation and participation. Placements are typically made with police, prosecution, judicial, probation and corrections agencies in Chicago and Cook County.

395. Special Topics.
Course titles and content vary from semester to semester. Examples are: family law and social work; law and society; police organization and management; criminal motivation; origins of law enforcement; and computer and information systems. Students may take as many as three courses bearing this number.

396. Independent Study.
Prerequisite: prior approval.

397H. Honors Reading Tutorial I. (H)
Prerequisite: prior approval.
Open to honors students majoring in criminal justice.

398H. Honors Reading Tutorial II. (H)
Prerequisite: prior approval.

Open to honors students majoring in criminal justice.

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