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Undergraduate Studies Catalog



Director: H. Rockwell

The world sometimes appears to be awash with violence and conflict. But long ago it was said that the peacemakers especially are blessed. The 20th century has seen far greater numbers of soldiers and civilians die in warfare than in any other century. Our cities and suburban regions are hit by high levels of violence. Systemic poverty grinds away at healthy community life in certain urban and rural districts even as sexism continues to support patterns of violence against women.

Similarly, the last 40 years have seen an upsurge in humanity’s impact on the natural biosphere. Advances in technological, industrial, and agricultural power have changed patterns of production and consumption and increased humanity’s conflict with basic ecological balances of the earth’s ecosystems. Given the pervasiveness of contemporary violence and conflict, it is imperative to explore patterns of conflict resolution and peacemaking.


Loyola’s Peace Studies program (PAX) is a multidisciplinary course of studies focusing on three distinct spheres of conflict and peacemaking, international, societal, and ecological. Peace studies offers an integrated examination of violence and conflict in diverse spheres, the linkages between and among different patterns of violence, and modes of conflict resolution and peacemaking pertinent to each sphere. The program aims to help students understand how the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences illuminate conflict and aggression, their resolution, and peacemaking. In this program, students will explore structures and strategies that help create national and international conditions necessary for peace, justice, and ecological security.


The minor consists of 18 credit hours (six courses completed with grades of "C" or better). An introductory course, PAX 201, is required of all students. Additionally, one course must be taken from each of the three peace studies field areas (containing cross-listed courses offered by different departments) as listed. Each area focuses on one of the distinct spheres of violence, conflict, and conflict resolution: the international, the societal, and the ecological. The remaining two electives, may be taken in any of the areas, or may be drawn from PAX directed readings, special topics, or the practicum).


201. Peace Studies Overview.
This required course provides a general introduction to peace studies as an area of inquiry. Through seminal readings, students are able to identify concrete social justice issues and their relevance to domains of societal, international and ecological spheres of violence. Students probe the insights of literature on nonviolence or limited use of violence through a critical research paper and other course applications.

390. Directed Readings in Peace Studies.
An independent program of reading and research developed in consultation with a supervising faculty member and the PAX director. It usually will include a review of the peace studies literature in the student’s major field, with a final research project that integrates the student’s major with peace studies.

397. Special Topics in Peace Studies.
Cross-listed upper-level courses or seminars focused on peace and justice issues are taught on occasion in other departments.

398. Practicum in Peace Studies.
Prerequisite: permission of PAX director. Supervised field experience in a social justice or peace-related program or project.

The following is a list of courses cross-listed with other departments and programs. For complete course descriptions, see the listings of originating departments (in parentheses). Other topic and theme courses are cross-listed when appropriate.


102. International Politics. (PLSC 102) (INTS 257)

231. Communication and Conflict. (CMUN 231)

280. Holocaust in Word and Film. (THEO 180 variable topic) (RCS 252)

285. Action and Value: War and Peace. (PHIL 285 variable topic)

293. Moral Problems: War and Peace. (THEO 192 variable topic) (RCS 292)

304. The Holocaust and 20th Century Genocide. (HIST 304) (RCS 302)

322. Arab-Israeli Conflict. (HIST 322) (INTS 322)

326. The Second World War. (HIST 326)

327. American National Security Policy. (PLSC 326)

330. America and Modern War. (PLSC 330)

353. International Law. (PLSC 353) (INTS 353)

356. Intervention in World Politics. (PLSC 356) (INTS 356)

358. War, Peace and Politics. (PLSC 358) (INTS 358)

359. Inter-American Relations. (HIST 359) (INTS 359) (LASP 349)

United Nations and International Organizations. (PLSC 364) (INTS 364)

367. Model United Nations. (PLSC 367) (INTS 367)

387. Rebels and Reformers in U.S. History. (HIST 381) (BWS 388) (WOST 303)

389. The Vietnam War. (HIST 389) (ASIA 389)


121. Social Problems. (SOCL 121)

122. Race and Ethnic Relations. (SOCL 122) (BWS 122) (ASIA 122)

218. Intercultural Communication. (CMUN 218) (ANTH 231) (INTS 213)

227. Social Justice and Communication. (CMUN 227)

250. Inequality in Society. (SOCL 250) (BWS 250) (ASIA 250)

289. Society in Literature. (ENGL 289 selected sections)

290. Human Values in Literature. (ENGL 290 selected sections)

291. Sociology of Violence. (SOCL 216)

295. Gender, Race, and Class in U.S. History. (HIST 295) (WOST 299)

331. Media, Politics and Propaganda. (CMUN 330) (INTS 331)

332. Liberation Theology (THEO 330) (INTS 330) (RCS 330)

337. Rhetoric of Social Change: Agitation and Resistance (CMUN 337) (LASP 337)


104. Humans and Natural Environment: Past and Present (ANTH 104) (ESP 104)

272. Environmental Sociology. (SOCL 272) (ESP 272)

273. Energy and the Environment. (NTSC 273) (ESP 273)

281. Human Impact on the Environment. (NTSC 281) (ESP 281)

282. The Human Environment. (NTSC 282) (ESP 282)

288. Nature in Literature. (ENGL 288) (ESP 288 selected sections)

294. Moral Problems: The Ecology Crisis. (THEO 192 variable topic) (ESP 293) (RCS 292) (ESP 398)

329. Environmental Advocacy (CMUN 329) (ESP 329)

354. Global Environmental Politics (PLSC 354) (ESP 354) (INTS 354)

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