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Undergraduate Studies Catalog


Lake Shore Campus:

Damen Hall 811
Phone: 773-508-3620
FAX: 773-508-3646

Professors Emeriti: A. Dhaliwal, B. Jaskoski

Professors: D. Castignetti, J. Doering (chairperson), R. Hamilton, H. Laten, A.J. Nappi, J. New, J. Savitz

Associate Professors: M. Berg, I. Boussy, T. Grande, W. Jones, A. Rotermund, D. Suter, N. Tuchman, W. Wasserman, K. Williamson

Assistant Professors: B. Pickett, M. Rochlin

Laboratory Instructors: A Davidson, G.P. Duffie, M. Glogowski, B. Haas, C. Heeneman, D. Jokinen, W. Kroll, R. Lammers-Campbell, R. Morgan, R. Ulbrich

The major, minor and all courses in biology are offered primarily at the Lake Shore Campus.


The Department of Biology endeavors to teach students the basic principles of biology in preparation for graduate studies, entrance into professional schools including medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, careers in teaching, or employment in industry or government.

Requirements for the Major in biology

Thirty-eight (38) credit hours, including six required courses totaling 19 hours, and biology elective courses totaling 19 hours. The required courses are BIOL 101, 102, 111, 112 (or 124, 125), 251, 265, 282, and one of 252, 266, or 283. Two courses from the biology electives must have a laboratory component. This may be either a 4.0 credit lecture/lab course or a stand-alone laboratory. A second course from the 252, 266, or 283 group will count toward one of the elective lab component requirements. BIOL 299, 397, or 398 count toward one of these elective lab requirements only.

Majors in biology are also required to successfully complete the following ancillary courses: calculus (MATH 131, 132 OR 161, 162); general chemistry (CHEM 101, 102, 111, 112, OR 105, 106); organic chemistry (223, 224, 225, 226 OR 221 and 222); and physics (PHYS 111, 112, 131, 132 OR 113, 114, 133, 134 OR 125, 126, 135, 136).

Required courses should be taken in the following sequence:

1st Year:

BIOL 101, 102, 111, 112

CHEM 101, 102, 111, 112

MATH 131, 132

2nd Year:

BIOL 251 and 265 or 282

BIOL 252 or 266 or 283

CHEM 223, 224, 225, 226

3rd Year:

BIOL 265 or 282

BIOL electives

PHYS 111, 112, 131, 132

4th Year:

BIOL electives

Credit Hrs.
Biology required courses: 101, 102, 111, 112, (or 124, 125); 251, 282; one of 252, 266, or 283
Elective courses: two courses must have a lab component
Chemistry 101, 102, 111, 112 OR 105, 106 and 223, 224, 225, 226 OR 221, 222
Physics 111, 112, 131, 132 OR 113, 114, 133, 134 OR 125, 126, 135, 136
Mathematical sciences 131, 132 OR 161, 162
English 105, 106
Foreign language
History core
Literature core
Philosophy core
Theology core
Social science core
Communicative/expressive arts core
Electives to complete minimum total of 128 credit hours

Departmental Regulations

Grade Requirements: All Biology courses that serve as prerequisites for other Biology courses must be passed with a grade of "C" or better. This requirement applies to all students taking Biology courses, both majors and non-majors. Biology majors must pass all Biology courses being used to satisfy major requirements with a grade of "C" or better.

All ancillary courses that serve as prerequisites for Biology courses (Chemistry, Math) must be passed with a grade of "C" or better. This requirement applies to all students taking Biology courses, both majors and non-majors. For example, Chemistry (CHEM 102) must be passed with a "C" or better before taking Cell Biology (BIOL 251) or Genetics (BIOL 282).

When students find themselves in special circumstances, the Department of Biology approves the use of discretion by the chairperson in waiving either of the above grade requirements.

A course in which a grade of "D" or "D+" is received will not count toward major or minor credits. Required courses in which a grade of "D" or "D+" is received must be repeated.

The Department of Biology advises students who earn 3 or more grades of "D+," "D," "F," "W," or "WF" in major courses to withdraw from the biology major.

Declaration Of Major: Students may declare themselves as biology majors at any time. Change of major forms must be signed by the respective department chairpersons. All majors are assigned a faculty advisor with whom they should meet each semester.

Transfer Of Credit: Transfer of credits from other institutions in satisfaction of either required or elective courses for the major in biology depends upon course equivalency, university policy, and approval by the chairperson. Transfer students majoring in biology are required to take a minimum of 20 credit hours of biology courses at Loyola University. Ordinarily, transfer of credit from professional or graduate schools for purposes of obtaining a major or minor in biology is not permitted.

Requirements for Minor in Biology: The minimum requirement for a minor in biology is 24 credit hours of biology of which the following courses are required: BIOL 101, 102, 111, 112, (or 124, 125), 251, 265, 282. A minimum of 12 credit hours in biology must be taken at Loyola University.

Requirements for Honors in Biology: In addition to the required courses for the major, honors program students in biology are required to take BIOL 397, Senior Honors Thesis, in order to receive departmental honors at the honors convocation. Departmental honors will also be awarded to any graduating senior with a cumulative Loyola grade point average of 3.5 and a 3.9 GPA in Biology courses.

Advanced Placement: College credit and advanced placement will be granted to entering freshmen who have received scores of 4 or 5 on Advanced Placement Biology Examination of the College Examination Board. This will satisfy the major requirement (8 credit hours) for BIOL 101, 102, 111, and 112.


Biology Electives: In addition to the six required courses, majors take elective courses in biology: some require approval of the chairperson in the Department of Biology. Students may take any of the upper level courses in the department for elective credit. Qualified students may take graduate courses in the department as Biology electives. Students may also use their electives to design a program of concentration in a particular area of Biology. Faculty advisors will assist students in designing such programs.

B.S. in Biology/MBA Program: This 5 year, dual degree program is designed especially for students interested in careers in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. The normal requirements for the B.S. in Biology apply. In addition, students take ECON 201 and ECON 202 before the end of their second year, which fulfills the social science core requirement. In their third year students take BIOL 335 (Biostatistics) which fulfills an upper level Biology elective requirement. Students take the GMAT and make formal application to the MBA program by the end of their third year. In their fourth year students complete the B.S. in Biology as well as take two MBA courses that count as free electives for the undergraduate degree. The fifth year is spent completing the remaining courses required for the MBA.

Neuroscience Minor: The Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Minor is administered by the world-renowned Parmly Hearing Institute at Loyola. A number of Biology courses are required as part of this program, and they all can also be used to fulfill the upper level elective requirements for the Biology major.

Pharmacy Program: The Chicago College of Pharmacy of Midwestern University offers a dual acceptance program with Loyola University leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy degree. Students spend two years at Loyola taking required courses, including several in Biology, before matriculating to Midwestern University.

Teaching Biology: Students who plan careers as high school biology teachers should see page 197 for information on the teacher certification requirements. Also see the School of Education for information on special program to earn a M.A. in Education along with a B.S. in Biology.

Courses Of Instruction

(Note: course credit hours are indicated in parentheses following the course title.)

101. Introduction to Biology I. (3)
Fundamental principles of biology; basic chemistry, cell structure and function, energy transformations, evolutionary theory, cellular reproduction, principles of genetics.

102. Introduction to Biology II. (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, 111.
Fundamental principles of biology, diversity of life, environmental and biological diversity, population and community ecology, study of plant structure and function, reproduction and controlling plant growth and development, comparative animal organ systems, mechanism of cell communication.

111. Introduction to Biology Laboratory I. (1)
Complements the lecture material through observation, experimentation, and when appropriate, dissection of representative organisms. Observations will include physical and chemical phenomena as well as the anatomy and physiology of selected organisms. The organisms to be studied will be selected from the kingdoms monera, protista, fungi, plantae and animalia.

112. Introduction to Biology Laboratory II. (1)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, 111.
Complements the lecture material through observation, experimentation, and when appropriate, dissection of representative organisms. Observations will include physical and chemical phemonena as well as the anatomy and physiology of selected organisms. The organisms to be studied will be selected from the kingdoms monera, protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia.

152. Human Anatomy and Physiology I. (4)
Lecture, laboratory, and demonstrations. The organization of the human body with emphasis on cell and tissue structure and function, and the anatomy and physiology of the skeletal, muscular, nervous and endocrine systems.

(Credit not applied toward the major in biology.)

153. Human Anatomy and Physiology II. (4)
Prerequisite: 152
Lecture, laboratory and demonstrations. The continuation of 152. Emphasis on the structure and functions of the cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.

(Credit not applied toward the major in biology.)

205. Plant Biology. (4)
Prerequisites: 102, 112, (or 125).
Lecture and laboratory. Survey of the principles of botany including development and reproduction, structure, phylogeny and metabolism.

240. Psychology and Biology of Perception. (PSYC 240) (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 102, 112, (or 125); PSYC 101.
The major sensory and perceptual systems of humans and other animals with emphasis on historical development, multi-disciplinary approaches, applications to medical diagnosis and treatment, noise pollution and speech perception.

241. Brain and Behavior. (PSYC 305) (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 102, 112, (or 125).
Consideration of anatomy and physiology of the nervous system; representation in the brain and production of motor behavior; and neural mechanisms of learning, memory, perception, motivation, emotion, and sleep.

251. Cell Biology. (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 102, 112, (or 125); CHEM 102 or 106.
Basic molecular and cellular studies of living organisms, emphasizing the relationships between subcellular structures and biochemical and physiological functions of cells.

252. Cell Biology Laboratory. (2)
Prerequisite or corequisite: 251.
Laboratory experiences designed to explore relationships between structure and function of subcellular components.

265. Ecology. (ESP 265) (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 102, 112, (or 125); MATH 132 or 162.
Relationships of organisms to their environment and to each other at the organism, population, and community levels.

266. Ecology Laboratory. (ESP 266) (2)
Prerequisite or corequisite: 265.
Laboratory and field experience designed to illustrate the principles of ecology. Required field trips.

282. Genetics. (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 102, 112, (or 125); CHEM 102 or 106.
Fundamental genetic principles and mechanics of genetic inheritance, expression and change. Course content includes classical, molecular and mathematical approaches to understanding the nature of the genetic process.

283. Genetics Laboratory. (2)
Prerequisite or corequisite: 282.
Demonstration of genetic principles and mechanisms using live organisms, where possible, to illustrate chromosomal structures and transmission, molecular biology, gene linkage, gene frequencies, and variation.

299. Research. (4)
Prerequisite: permission of department chairperson.
Research methods in biology. Emphasis on investigation of biological hypothesis, including literature search and appropriate experimental techniques. Oral presentation and written paper required.

300. Seminar in Biological Sciences. (1)
Prerequisites: five courses in biology.
Reports and discussions of relevant literature on selected topics.

302. General Microbiology. (4)
Prerequisite: 251.
Lecture and laboratory. Fundamental concepts of microbial life, physiology, metabolism.

304. Introduction to Developmental Biology. (3)
Prerequisite: 251.
The analysis of developmental processes such as spermatogenesis, oogenesis, fertilization, embryonic cleavage, cell determination and differentiation in selected species. Emphasis will be on experiments that reveal how these processes are controlled.

313. Laboratory in Psychobiology. (PSYC 311) (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 102, 112, (or 125); PSYC 306, and PSYC 240 or 305.
A "hands-on" experience with the instrumentation, measurement techniques and experimental designs used in electrophysiological studies of nervous system function.

314. Advanced Microbiology. (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 282, 302; CHEM 224.
Concepts of microbial life, physiology, biochemistry and immunology. Topics covered include microbial methods, nature, metabolism, biosynthesis, environmental effects and differences among microorganisms.

315. Introductory Immunology. (4)
Prerequisites: 251, 282. Lecture and laboratory.
The study of the nature and chemical basis of immune responses. History and vocabulary of immunology; experiments involving immune recognition and destruction; theories regarding self-tolerance and immunological diseases.

316. Limnology. (4)
Prerequisites: BIOL 265; CHEM 102 or 106. Lecture and laboratory.
An introduction to the study of lakes and streams . The course includes discussion of physical and chemical factors, the biota, production, and community dynamics. Laboratories include field trips to local aquatic habitats.

317. Biology of Persistent Diseases. (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 282, 302, CHEM 224 or instructorís permission.
Fundamentals of microbe-host interactions and microbial diseases. Microbial mechanisms of pathogenicity are examined. There are also in-depth readings and discussion of specific microbial diseases.

318. General Virology. (3)
Prerequisite: 251.
A course designed to consider symptomatology, modes of transmission, physical and chemical properties of viruses with special emphasis on their biological relationships and recent advances in virus research.

319. Evolution. (3)
Prerequisite: 282; 265 recommended.
An overview of evolutionary change as seen in the fossil record, including rates and direction of evolution. Focuses on the mechanisms of evolutionary change: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, migration.

320. Animal Behavior. (ANTH 320) (3)
Prerequisites: 102, 112, (or 125); or permission.
Interdisciplinary. The biological basis of animal behavior including function and evolution of behavioral patterns.

323. Comparative Anatomy. (4)
Prerequisites: 251, 282. Lecture and laboratory.
A study of homologous systems and vertebrate phylogeny.

325. Primatology: Behavior and Ecology. (ANTH 325) (ESP 325) (3)
Prerequisites: 102, 112, (or 125).
Interrelations between the behavior and ecology of monkeys, apes and prosimians. Problems of conservation and management. Implications for human behavior.

326. Human Osteology. (ANTH 326) (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 102, 112, (or 125); ANTH 101 or 103 or NTSC 104. Lecture.
Introduction to skeletal anatomy, along with various methods and techniques currently employed by physical anthropologists to ascertain age at death, sex, and diseases of past human populations.

335. Introduction to Biostatistics. (STAT 335) (4)
Prerequisites: MATH 132 or 162; BIOL 102, 112, (or 125).
An introduction to statistical methods used in designing biological experiments and in data analyses. Topics include probability and sampling distribution, designed biological experiments and analysis of variance, regression and correlation, stochastic processes, and frequency distributions. Computer laboratory assignments with biological data.

341. Histology. (4)
Prerequisite: 251. Lecture and laboratory.
Microscopic anatomy of animal tissues. Structural patterns of tissues in vertebrate organs.

342. Introduction to Human Anatomy. (4)
Prerequisite: BIOL 251.
A non-laboratory introduction to the structure of the human body. While major emphasis will be placed on structure at the gross level, tissue structure, embryogenesis, organogenesis and physiological correlates will also be considered.

345. Sociobiology. (3)
Prerequisites: 265, 282.
The social behavior of animals with an emphasis on the evolutionary and ecological determinants of those behaviors.

350. Vertebrate Physiology. (4)
Prerequisites: BIOL 251; CHEM 222 or 224. Lecture and laboratory.
Animal function and structure; emphasis on humans and other vertebrates as basis for understanding organ physiology. Functional relationships stressed. Feeding, digestion, water relations, respiration, hormone systems, receptor and effector mechanisms, central nervous coordination, regulation of homeostasis, dynamics of the circulatory system and the physiology of bone and musculature.

352. Mammalian Endocrinology. (3)
Prerequisite: 350.
Survey of hormones that regulate metabolism, salt and water balance, calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and reproduction; special emphasis on hormonal transduction signals and integration of endocrine systems.

354. Biology of Mammalian Reproduction. (3)
Prerequisite: 251.
Anatomy and physiology of male and female reproductive systems, fertilization, implantation, pregnancy, and birth; immunological aspects of reproduction.

355. Parasitology. (4)
Prerequisite: 251. Lecture and laboratory.
Study of animal parasites, their distribution, structure, adaptations, life cycles, and host relationships.

356. Medical Parasitology. (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 251, 265, 282.
Introduction to animal agents and vectors of human disease. Topics will include life cycles of parasites, epidemiology, immunological aspects, and current research on related tropical diseases.

358. Developmental Neurobiology. (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 251 and 282.
Lecture/discussions will focus on several issues central to developmental neurobiology: control of neural differentiation, proliferation and migration of neural progenitor cells, regional specification of the nervous system, axon guidance, synapse formation and refinement, and control of cell suicide/survival. Students are also given the opportunity to apply their knowledge to the interpretation of important primary research papers, students also learn how to present these papers to their future colleagues.

360. Field Biology. (3)
Prerequisite: 265 and permission of chairperson.
Ecological study of an area in North America outside Midwest. Includes a field trip to a specific region. Trip is at student expense.

362. Neurobiology. (3)
Prerequisite: 251.
The study of neurons and nervous systems. The purpose is to introduce major principles and concepts in modern neurobiology. An emphasis is placed upon an understanding of the electro-physiology of the neuron and the manner in which groups of neurons are organized into functional nervous systems subserving sensory, motor or integrative functions.

363. Entomology. (4)
Prerequisite: 265. Lecture and laboratory.
The biology and classification of insects. Field trips and student collections vary according to semester.

364. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. (4)
Prerequisite: 265. Lecture and laboratory.
Insects and related arthropods of medical, public health and veterinary importance. Relationships between vectors, pathogens and hosts.

366. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. (4)
Prerequisites: BIOL 251; CHEM 224 or equivalent. Lecture and laboratory.
An introduction to biochemical principles as they relate to major biological themes such as the relationship between cellular structure and function, metabolism, thermodynamics, regulation, information pathways, and evolution.

368. Plant Ecology. (4)
Prerequisite: 265. Lecture and laboratory.
Focuses on plant population dynamics; plant-animal interactions, including herbivory, pollination, dispersal; plant community dynamics, such as the processes of succession; and the effect of global climate on the distribution of major vegetation types. The laboratory is divided between weekend field trips to local forests, prairies and bogs, and laboratory studies.

370. Ichthyology. (4)
Prerequisite: 265. Lecture and laboratory and/or field trips.
Systematics, phylogeny, anatomy, physiology, behavior, functional morphology and ecology of fishes. Includes field collecting trips in Lake Michigan and local streams and lakes and individual projects/research papers.

372. Lake Michigan Biology. (4)
Prerequisites: BIOL 265; CHEM 102 or 106. Lecture and laboratory.
Study of various physical, chemical, and ecological aspects of Lake Michigan, with emphasis on field study techniques, and discussions of recent research and the impact of humans on Lake Michigan Biology. Laboratory exercises emphasize fish ecology.

373. Laboratory in Neuroscience I. (NEUR 301) (PSYC 388) (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 362 and either PSYC 240 or PSYC 305, or both PSYC 240 and 305 and PSYC 311.
The first of two laboratory courses intended for neuroscience minors. The course will cover anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and neurocomputational approaches to the study of the nervous system and the brain. This course will emphasize learning basic neuroscience laboratory techniques.

374. Laboratory in Neuroscience II. (NEUR 302) (PSYC 389) (3)
Prerequisite: BIOL 373.
The second of two laboratory courses intended for neuroscience minors. The course will cover anatomical, physiological, behavioral, neurocomputational approaches to the study of the nervous system and the brain. This course will help prepare students to conduct independent research projects. Students will conduct one independent research project during the last part of the course.

375. Aquatic Insects. (4)
Prerequisite: BIOL 265.
The classification and ecology of insects that have become fully or partially adapted to the aquatic environment. Emphasis will be on the ecology and biology (behavior, physiology and phylogeny) of aquatic insects. Students will acquire an understanding of the ecological relationships between aquatic insects and their physical and biological environment, including their interactions with humans. The course includes laboratory field trips to local aquatic habitats.

381. Biology of Sharks, Skates, and Rays. (3)
Prerequisites: Senior standing as Biology Major or permission of instructor.
The object of this course is an intensive inquiry into established knowledge and current research in the biology of the elasmobranch fishes. This seminar course stresses reading in the current literature, student-led discussion and presentation of recent findings in the anatomy, behavior, physiology, ecology and evolution of sharks and their relatives, the skates and rays. An optional field trip to Florida for a limited number of students during the semester provides an opportunity to observe elasmobranchs in both the laboratory and at sea. The field trip experience may not always be offered and does not count as part of the grade.

382. Molecular Genetics. (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 251 and 282; CHEM 222 or 224.
In-depth coverage of molecular details of genetic processes using bacterial model systems. Topics include DNA, RNA and protein synthesis; gene regulation and organization.

383. Population Genetics. (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 282; MATH 132 or 162; BIOL 235 recommended.
Fundamental principles of population, ecological, and evolutionary genetics emphasizing the dynamic properties of genes and chromosomes in populations. Special topics include the impact of molecular biology on the field, genetic counseling and forensics, and molecular evolution.

385. Principles of Electron Microscopy. (4)
Prerequisites: 341, permission of instructor.
An introduction to the principles and techniques employed in preparing biological specimens for transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

389. Introduction to Pharmacology. (3) Lecture.
Prerequisite: 350.
Principles and mechanisms of drug action. Topics discussed include drug-receptor interaction, pharmacokinetics, drug distribution, metabolism, and neuro-transmission, blood-brain barrier, and toxicology.

390. Molecular Biology Laboratory. (4)
Prerequisites: BIOL 251, 282, 283 and CHEM 222 or 224.
An intensive laboratory course in the basic principles and techniques of molecular biology, including cloning, restriction mapping, nucleic acid hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing. Short independent research projects are a required component. Substantial amount of time in the laboratory will be required outside the regular class periods.

395. Special Topics in Biology. (1-4)
Prerequisites: determined by instructor.
Specific areas of study in the biological sciences.

397H. Senior Honors Thesis. (4)
Prerequisites: senior status, participation in the honors program, chairís permission.
Students will pursue, under advisement, a research topic which will challenge the individualís ability and potential to perform an independent investigation, the results of which will be presented at a research presentation seminar and result in departmental honors being awarded.

398. Internship in Biology.
(variable credit) Prerequisites: 21 hours in biology; all cognate requirements; letter(s) of recommendation from participating off-campus professional(s); permission of the chairperson.
A supervised field placement intended to give students training and experience in biology which could not be obtained on campus.

399. Individual Study. (1-4)
Prerequisite: consent of the department chairperson.
Directed study of a specific topic under the direction of one or more faculty members

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