Loyola University Chicago
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Undergraduate Studies Catalog


Lake Shore Campus:
Crown Center 501
Phone: 773-508-2221
FAX: 773-508-2153

Water Tower Campus:
Lewis Towers 900
Phone: 312-915-6522
FAX: 312-915-8593

Professors Emeriti: S. Cohen, J. Gagliano, W. Gray, H. Gross, J. Hays, R. Matré, L. McCaffrey, C. Ronan, S.J., F. Walker

Professors: R. Bireley, S.J., A. Cardoza, L. Erenberg, T. Gilfoyle, S. Hirsch (chairperson), T. Karamanski, P. Moylan, P. Pfeffer, H. Platt, B. Rosenwein

Associate Professors: M. Allee, R. Bucholz, D. Dennis, W. Galush, Z. Ghazzal, T. Gross-Diaz, A. Harrington, BVM, M. Khodarkovsky, T. Knapp, P. Mooney-Melvin, J. Nolan

Assistant Professors: L. Dossey, S. Kaufman, C. Manning

Adjunct Professors: E. Lefkovitz

The major in history is offered at Lake Shore Campus and at the Water Tower Campus primarily in the evening.


The curriculum of the History Department is intended to develop an understanding of the human past. History courses include a consideration of cultures, ideas, values, and value systems and foster an appreciation of historical writing as a form of literature while teaching methods of historical analysis. As a discipline, history provides special insights into the society in which students live by stimulating them to view their world through the perspective of time and change. Equally, it provides the tools to understand and to value other cultures both in their own right and for their contributions to the society in which the students live.

The history major prepares students for careers in such fields as law, journalism, the foreign service, public administration, and teaching as well as other professions where the techniques of historical research, analysis, and synthesis are applicable. History also serves as a preparation for a career as a historian. History courses are especially pertinent to students of business, politics, the humanities and fine arts.

Because history is a far-reaching discipline which concerns all aspects of civilizations; political, religious, economic, social and cultural; the department encourages history majors to choose electives in fields which will enrich their understanding of human experience. The history major enjoys considerable flexibility and majors should consult their department advisor for suggestions about electives which best meet individual needs.


History in the Core Curriculum: Students fulfill the requirements of the core curriculum by taking HIST 101 and one of the following: 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, or 107.

Requirements for the Major in History: The major in history requires 36 hours. The requirements are distributed to provide the student with breadth and depth as well as a sense of comparative possibilities and an appreciation of other cultures and eras.

In addition to the courses required by the core curriculum (6 hours), HIST 201 and 202 are required (6 hours). In consultation with an advisor, the student will select five advanced courses in the 290-399 series from specific areas as follows: one course in the history of pre-industrial (pre-1700) Europe; one course in the history of modern Europe (since 1700); one course in U.S. history; one course in the history of Africa, Asia, Latin America or the Middle East; and the senior colloquium (HIST 395). The remaining three courses, which also are to be selected from the 290-399 series, are chosen according to the studentís interests.

Suggested course sequence for a major in history:

1st year

101 and one of the following: 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107

2nd year

201 and 202

3rd year

electives from 290 to 399 offerings (based on above guidelines)

4th year

electives from 290 to 399 offerings (based on above guidelines); 395

While taking History 395 (or 397) students must submit a portfolio which includes six history papers selected from work done in the major. Students should see their History Department advisor immediately after declaring a history major to learn the specifics of the portfolio requirement.

Students intending to do graduate study in history should take sufficient elective courses in a foreign language to enable them to read that language fluently.

Requirements for the Minor in History: The minor sequence in history has two objectives. First, it provides students interested in history with a structured in-depth experience of the field, short of majoring, but more than a random sampling of electives would allow. A minor also provides students with a structured group of courses related to their major field.

The minor consists of 15 credit hours (five courses) beyond the core requirement in history. Students must take at least one advanced-level course in the 290-399 series from each of the following areas: the pre-industrial (pre-1700) world, the modern world (since 1700), and United States history.

Advanced Placement Program: Up to six credit hours in United States history and/or European history and exemption from corresponding college courses will be granted to entering freshmen who have qualified themselves in the judgment of the department in the examination of the Advanced Placement Program of the College Entrance Examination Board.

Departmental Honors in History: The program leading to departmental honors in history challenges the interested student and offers the opportunity for more extensive study of history. It is open to students in the collegiate honors program as well as to history majors with a GPA of 3.4 in history courses and an overall GPA of 3.2 (in both cases including courses taken elsewhere, if their credits have been transferred). The student must declare his/her intention to pursue history honors no later than the end of the first semester of junior year (which means that the student must begin taking courses in this program at least three semesters before graduation).

Required for departmental honors are 13 courses totaling 39 credit hours in history, including an honors colloquium in history (HIST 396) and the honors tutorial (HIST 397), which honors students take during their senior year in place of the senior colloquium. HIST 396 is offered each spring semester, and HIST 397 each fall. Students may take more colloquia or in some cases graduate courses, in which case the number of other advanced level courses is correspondingly reduced.

Successful completion of an honors essay, which is to be prepared in the honors tutorial (HIST 397), as well as the grade point averages specified above, are required for recognition of departmental honors.

For further information on these programs, please contact the director of the honors program in history at the Lake Shore Campus.

Certification Requirements for teaching History in the High Schools. Students major in history and take a minor in secondary education through the School of Education. For further information, consult School of Education, Curriculum in this Undergraduate Catalog.


101. The Evolution of Western Ideas and Institutions to the Seventeenth Century.
An introduction to history as a discipline, and an analysis of the origins, early development and structure of Western civilization from the ancient world to the 17th century. The beginnings of civilization in the ancient Near East; Greece and Rome; the development of Judaism and Christianity; the structure of medieval civilization; economic change and geographical expansion of the west; the Renaissance; political, social and religious crisis and its resolution will be emphasized.

102. The Evolution of Western Ideas and Institutions since the Seventeenth Century.
The development of modern Western society from the 17th century to the present. Treated within the context of the rise and decline of a Europe-centered world are: science, nature and the Enlightenment; the American and French revolutions; the Industrial Revolution, social and political change; nationalism and imperialism; World War I, the ephemeral peace and the world depression; the Russian revolution; Fascism and World War II and the contemporary world.

103. Modern Western Civilization: American Pluralism.
Viewing America as a consequence of the expansion of Europe, this course explores the nature of American pluralism, asking how a multicultural society was created, how it continues to recreate itself, and how it functions. The course is issue-centered, but uses cases and examples from the sixteenth century to the present and from the great variety of ethnic, racial, and religious groups that have formed and continue to form the American people.

104. Modern Western Civilization: the West and the World. (INTS 104)
This course describes and analyzes the encounters between Europeans and the non-European world since the late fifteenth century. Among the topics considered are the expansion of the idea of European ("Western") civilization; the impact of the "West" on the modern world in such institutions and ideas as science, capitalism, industrialism, popular sovereignty, nationalism, imperialism, and colonialism; and the ways in which the non-European, non-Western world has been attracted and repelled, has accepted and rejected the various Westernizing influences. The course is also sensitive to the ways in which cultural and material influences of the civilizations of Asia, Africa, and the Americas have contributed to the culture of the West and to the emerging global culture.

106. Modern Western Civilization: the Humanities in Context.
The history of Western civilization since the 17th century. In addition to the major events and trends, the course emphasizes the major literary, artistic, and cultural movements and relates them to Western political and material culture.

201. The United States to 1865.
Survey of American history: the age of discovery; the colonial period; the Revolution; the Jacksonian era; the slavery question; domestic and foreign affairs; the Civil War.

202. The United States Since 1865.
The Era of Reconstruction; relations with the outside world; building the railroads; the new industrialization; the organized workers; the 20th century and intervention in two European wars.

292. History of the U.S. Environment. (ESP 292)
This course utilizes lecture and discussion to present the history of American attitudes towards the natural environment of the United States. Topics covered include Native Americans and nature, the transformation of eastern and midwestern America through commercial agriculture, the impact of urbanization and industrialization on the environment, the evolution of environmental consciousness, and the development of state and federal environmental policies.

293. Womenís Sphere in Past Societies. (WOST 256)
Comparative perspectives on feminism, sexuality, and women in the family and in public life. Focus is primarily on the United States and Western Europe from the 16th century to the mid-20th century.

294. Men and Women in U.S. History. (WOST 290)
Examines the changes in gender roles and the relationship between men and women from the colonial era to the present. Dividing U.S. history into three periods (colonial, Victorian and modern), the course analyzes the changing expectations about and definitions of men and women. How families were organized, how childrearing was handled, who made up the home, and how work and family production followed a sexual division of labor.

295. Gender, Race and Class in U.S. History. (PAX 295) (WOST 299)
The historical interplay of gender, race and class in the lives of African-American and white women in the United States. Critical themes and periods in the development of racism and sexism, especially the ways in which the two relate; differences and similarities in the manifestations of and reactions to racism and sexism in the lives and thought of African-American and white women of differing class backgrounds.

296. Women in East Asia. (ASIA 296) (INTS 296) (WOST 296)
This course studies the lives of Asian women. It looks at the past and examines how changes have been brought about over the years. It treats such issues as how life reflects law in the political, social, economic and cultural history of Asian women; how imperialism and war have affected women; how women have effected change.

297. The Jesuits: Their Life and History.
This course aims to explain who the Jesuits are and what they are about through a study of their history beginning with the foundation of the Society of Jesus by Ignatius Loyola in the 16th century and up to the present day.  Special emphasis is placed on characteristics of the Jesuit religious spirit and on Jesuit activity in different fields of endeavor such as foreign missions, education, politics, literature, and the visual arts. 

299. Contemporary Global Issues in Historical Perspective.
(INTS 298)
This course will demonstrate the importance of historical analysis to an understanding of the contemporary world. Students will study the historical dimensions of several important contemporary issues such as the globalization of industry and technology, resurgent ethnic and religious strife, racism, imperialism, and the crisis of the nation state, among others. Both thematic and chronological approaches will be employed in examining selected world regions.

300. Topics in History.
Special topics or new approaches of current interest to the instructor. They may be used, like all other 300-level courses, to fulfill the history major distribution requirements. The title of each Topics course, specifying date and/or area, will indicate which distribution requirement it fulfills within the history major.

301. Disease and Health in History. (ESP 304)
The influence of disease on socio-political developments in different periods; the influence of disease in the lives of selected individuals; the history of public health, sanitation, and hospital development; changing knowledge of human anatomy and physiology, and its relation to health; evolution of theories of disease; development of chemical remedies; "non-medical" approaches to disease in Western history; connections between agriculture, nutrition and health, and population pressure.

302. History of Western Education. (ELPS 301)

303. The Pre-Industrial City in Europe. (MSTU 324)
Survey of urban development in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire in the West until the rise of modern industrialism. The medieval town; the town as a political force; town planning and development; the early modern town. Some comparison with Middle and Far Eastern cities.

304. The Holocaust and Twentieth Century Genocide. (PAX 304) (RCS 304)
Twentieth century genocide: its causes, processes, and implications. Examples will be studied in depth in order to concretize historical, psychological, and societal insights. The Holocaust will be analyzed in greatest depth. An effort will be made to develop the outlines of a theory of when genocide is likely to occur and to provide a clear definition of the term. Possible ways of predicting as well as preventing it will be discussed.

307. Greece to Alexander the Great. (CLST 309)
History of the Aegean world from the beginning of the Age of Transition through the rise and decline of the Spartan and Athenian systems; Macedonia; the emergence and the end of the diadoch states.

308. A History of Rome to Constantine. (CLST 308) (ROST 308)
The earliest Apennine civilizations; the Etruscans; the foundation and the rise of Rome; libera res publica; the Principate and Empire.

309. History of Primitive Christianity. (RCS 309)
Messianic and eschatological movements in the Mediterranean world during the Hellenistic and Roman Republic periods; the political, economic, and social background of these trends, and their eventual culmination in what St. Paul described as "the fullness of time" (Gal. 4.4). The course will analyze the historical role of Jesus and his followers in the early Roman Principate.

310. The Formation of Medieval Europe, 300-1100. (MSTU 328)
European society and culture in the early Middle Ages. Among the topics covered are: the decline of classical civilization; the fall of Rome and the barbarian invasions; early Germanic kingdoms; Charlemagne and Carolingian Europe; the Vikings; church and society in the eleventh century.

311. The Medieval World, 1100-1500. (MSTU 332)
European society and culture in the later Middle Ages. Among the topics covered are: new forms of schools and learning; the origins of national monarchies; the crusades; chivalry; courtly love and the role of women; the rise of towns; church and state relations; the Black Death the Hundred Yearsí War.

312. Introduction to Islamic History. (RCS 312)
The early and medieval history of the states, societies, and cultures of the Middle East. The impact of Islam as a religious and cultural phenomenon from the prophetic mission until the fall of the Abbsi empire in 1258. In addition to a survey of the main socio-economic trends in the region, the course also includes a reading of the Quríân and a selection of primary sources from jurisprudence, philosophy, ethics, historiography, among others.

313. The Modern Middle East. (INTS 313) (RCS 313)
A survey of the modern Middle East and the Arab world in particular, including its Ottoman background; the age of imperialism; the 20th century from an anthropological perspective.

314. Renaissance. (MSTU 336)
The interpretations of the Renaissance; the social, economic and political history of the Italian communes and states, with special emphasis on Florence; the growth of a Renaissance literary and artistic civilization from Dante, Petrarch and Giotto, to Machiavelli and Michelangelo; humanism and Renaissance philosophy of human nature and Renaissance education.

315. The Reformation.
The social, religious, intellectual, and political background of the Reformation; Lutherís personal religious experience and his protest; the consolidation of Lutheranism in Germany; the Swiss Reformation of Zwingli and Calvin; the nature and spread of Calvinism; the Radical Reformation; the Catholic Reform and the Council of Trent.

316. Europe in Transition to Modern Times, 1450-1650.
The growth of national monarchies; overseas expansion; capitalism; Renaissance and Reformation; the Counter-Reformation; the religious wars; the Scientific Revolution; the new philosophy art and literature.

317. The Age of Absolutism and Enlightenment.
Covers the period that leads directly into the French Revolution. Survey of the social and economic role of Western Europe in the world of the 17th and 18th centuries; the nature of classic absolutism illustrated by the reign of Louis XIV of France; the history of the Netherlands as the leading economic power of the day; the origin and evolution of Prussia and Austria in the heart of Europe examples of enlightened absolutism.

319. London Life and Culture 1550 ó 1715.
An interdisciplinary introduction to the history of London when the metropolis dominated the economic, political, social and cultural life of Great Britain as never before nor since. Students will attempt to assess the extent of that domination and the nature of Londonís contribution in each of these areas. Examination of recent work in urban history, accounts by contemporary Londoners and tourists, and fictional works covering the full range of London life, the palaces of Whitehall and St. James to the alleyways of the East End.

320. Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon.
The Atlantic Revolution of the 18th century; the background and chief events of the revolution in France; Napoleon, the Grand Empire and its fall.

321. Europe in the Nineteenth Century, 1815-1900.
The Restoration Order and the forces of change; the revolutions of 1848; the unification of Germany and Italy; science, industrialization, and social change; growth of modern imperialism.

322. Arab Israeli Conflict. (INTS 322, PAX 322)
The history of the Arab-Israeli conflict since the beginnings of the immigration of the East Europeans and Russian Jews to Ottoman Palestine in the late 19th century. It covers, among others, the conceptualization of national Zionism in Europe at the turn of this century; Ottoman and British Palestine; the declaration of the state of Israel; the Palestinian refugee problem and the rise of armed militia movements from within the neighboring Arab states (Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon); the Arab-Israeli wars; the Camp David agreement, the recent peace talks and their aftermath.

325. Europe in the Twentieth Century, 1900-1945. (INTS 376)
The origins of World War I, European states during World War I, the Russian Revolution, peacemaking in 1919, Europe between the wars, and World War II.

326. The Second World War. (PAX 326)
The history of the greatest war in modern times, from its origins to the destruction of the Axis powers and the onset of the Cold War. An effort is made to integrate political, social, economic, military, and diplomatic developments as well as to deal with such large themes as the Holocaust, the spread of nationalism, and the roots of the Cold War.

327. Contemporary Europe, 1945 to the Present. (INTS 327)
The postwar world, the movement toward European integration; the tensions between East and West; problems and proposed solutions in contemporary Europe.

329. England to 1485. (MSTU 340)
Major developments in England from the Roman occupation through the Middle Ages; the Anglo-Saxon invasions, the unification of the kingdom, the Norman Conquest, the strengthening of the "national monarchy," the 100 Yearsí War and the War of the Roses. Special attention will be paid to cultural life and variety within "English" tradition: developments in literature, music, scholarship, and the visual arts and architecture; spirituality within and without the Church; urban vs. "feudal" society.

330. Early Modern England, 1485-1760.
A survey of major political, social, economic, religious, and cultural developments in England under the Tudors, Stuarts and early Hanoverians. Topics include the aftermath of the Wars of the Roses; the English Reformation; Elizabethan and Jacobean culture and society; the English Civil War and Glorious Revolution of 1688; the wars against Louis XIV; and the rise of England as a great power.

331. Great Britain since 1760.
Political changes in Britain in the ages of the American and French Revolutions; economic and social causes and consequences of industrialization; 19th century urbanization, modernization, and social conflict; evolution of a secular culture; decline of aristocracy and development of democracy amid persistence of divisions based on social class; Britain as the pioneer in industrial decline; and the rise and decline of world power in the world wars of the 20th century.

332. The British Empire, 1783-1970. (INTS 332)
Rise and decline of a worldwide empire: different factors responsible for its growth; relationship of empire and British economic and political change; place of empire in the Victorian ethos; different imperial governing arrangements; growth of nationalism and movements for independence within the empire and commonwealth.

333. Ireland: From Colony to Nation State. (INTS 333)
Irish history from 1691 to the present; origins and evolution of Irish nationalism and its relationships to English Whig and Radical ideology, the Romantic movement, Irish literature, Catholicism, emigration, and agrarian radicalism; the impact of the Irish Question on British constitutional developments; Ireland as a case study of an emerging nation achieving freedom through a war of liberation; 20th century Ireland as a successful liberal democracy; and the current crisis in Northern Ireland as a microcosm of the Irish historical experience.

335. Italy in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. (INTS 335) (ROST 335)
A study of the political, social, religious, economic, and intellectual currents in Italy from the defeat of Napoleon to the present.

336. Germany in the Twentieth Century. (INTS 336)
World War I and the Revolution of 1918-1919; the Weimar Republic; the Rise and Fall of National Socialism; the two Germanies in the post-war era.

337. The Nazi Revolution.
The causes, character and consequences of Hitler fascism in Germany from the 1920ís to World War II. Beginning with the origins of Nazism, and proceeding to the reasons for the success of the Hitler movement and the style and results of Nazi rule in the 1930ís, the course considers the Nazi movement as a phenomenon growing out of unique circumstances as well as something which must be explained in the larger context of modern western history.

338. Modern France. (INTS 338)
A study of major political, international, religious, economic and social developments and intellectual currents in France from the defeat of Napoleon to Mitterand.

340. Russia before the 1917 Revolution: Building the Empire.
How Russia survived the ravages of the Mongols under Ghengis Khan, withstood the terror under Ivan the Terrible, westernization under Peter the Great, opened itself to new ideas under Catherine the Great, while continuing to preserve the oppressive institution of serfdom and remain a deeply divided society ready to explode in 1917.

341. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union. (INTS 392)
How the Russian Socialist revolution came into being, what kind of society it sought to create, and how this new society, the Soviet Union, developed and finally dissolved in 1991. Such issues as the Revolution and Civil War, Stalinís repression, victories in World War II, the years of stagnation, Soviet society, its institutions and culture, will be examined.

344. Early Modern China, 1550-1800. (ASIA 344) (INTS 371)
Early modern Chinese society, economy, and the state from ca. 1550 to 1800, which marked the culmination of the development of the centralized, bureaucratic, imperial state and exhibited significant innovations in economic structure and activity. Under the pressure of unprecedented demographic growth, the society began to experience many of the problems that continue. The course will also address Chinaís failure to build on its earlier economic and technological successes by exploring intellectual life and its relation to scientific and technological innovation.

345. Reform and Revolution in China, 1800-1949. (ASIA 345) (INTS 372)
Chinaís attempt to adjust to the transformations in its economy, society, politics and intellectual life initiated during the early modern period and transfigured into crisis proportions by unchecked demographic growth; encounters with first the West and then Japan through the end of World War II. Focus is on the numerous evolutionary and revolutionary strategies for change during the period.

346. China Since 1949: The Peopleís Republic. (ASIA 346) (INTS 373)
Examination of the attempt to create and foster the growth of a socialist state and society in China under the Chinese Communist Party. Attention will be given to major convulsive episodes such as land reform, the Great Leap Forward, the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, and the Four Modernizations without, however, losing sight of the steady transformation of society, the economy, and political life since 1949. Also addressed is the impact and legacy of Mao Zedong.

347. Japan 1640-1945: From Isolation to Empire.
Examines the forces in early modern and modern Japanese history which explain Japanís ability to move so quickly from an era of feudalism to one of the major powers in the 20th century. Emphasis is placed on the political, economic, social and cultural elements of Japanese society which help explain Japanís response to the intrusion of the West in the 19th century; Japanís move into imperialism; and war against China in the 1930ís and against the U.S. in the 1940ís.

348. Japan: World War II to the Present. (ASIA 348) (INTS 348)
Emphasis is on the role of Japan in World War II; the American occupation; Japanís new constitution; the United States-Japan Security Pact; and Japanís quick recovery. The political, social, economic and cultural elements that influenced this period.

353. Latin American Independence 1750-1830. (LASP 351)
The impact of the Enlightenment on Bourbon Spain and Spanish America, the state and the new economics; movement toward free trade; church and state; Indian policies. Movements against Spain; Hidalgo, Morelos in Mexico; Miranda, Bolivar and San Martin in South America; and problems of independence.

354. Latin America in the Nineteenth Century. (LASP 352)
The wars of independence; reconstruction and reorganization; the quest for national identity and modernity; dictatorship and the positivist rational; emergence of the democratic left as a challenge to oligarchical structures.

355. Latin America in Recent Times (INTS 389) (LASP 353)
Major political and socio-economic developments in Latin America in recent and contemporary times, ranging from the 1910 Mexican Revolution to the Peron dictatorship in Argentina, as well as radical movements since the 1950s. In addition, consideration will be given to the Castro regime in Cuba, civil wars in Central America, military rule in Chile (1973-1989), and current challenges to democratization in Peru (Alberto Fujimori), Venezuela (Hugo Chavez) and Colombia (war on drugs and civil war).

356. Caribbean and Central America in Colonial and Modern Times. (INTS 380) (LASP 354)
The European conquest and colonization of the Caribbean islands and Central America; the significance of the Caribbean region in world power politics from the early struggles for empire to the "Cuban Missile Crisis"; the Wars of Independence; problems of regionalism and nationalism in Central America; Cuba and Castroism; and recent trends.

357. Mexican History from Ancient to Modern Times. (INTS 379) (LASP 355)
Pre-Columbian times to the present. The Spanish Conquest and its effects; the Independence Movement; the quest for national reorganization, modernity and reform; the Diaz Dictatorship; the 1910 Revolution and its Latin American impact; recent trends.

358. Women in Latin American History (LASP 299) (WOST 385)
Contexualizes the life experiences of Latinas in Latin America and the United States through history, film, oral history, and their personal literatures. Includes Native American, African, Iberian, and U.S. women as well as the Virgin of Guadalupe, patrona of the Americas.

359. Inter-American Relations. (INTS 359) (LASP 349) (PAX 359)

Major themes in the relations between the United States and selected Latin American nations from the 19th century to the present. Twentieth century trends and developments will be emphasized such as Yankee intervention, Dollar Diplomacy, the Good Neighbor Policy, the Cuban Missile Crisis, FMLN and Sandinista movements, and such recent developments as the Grenada "rescue mission," the 1989 Panama invasion, and immigration issues.

360. Colonists and Natives in Early America, 1500-1763.
The European background for American colonization, pre-1500 Native American civilizations, the Age of Discovery, the settlement of the Chesapeake colonies, Puritan New England, colonial labor and economic patterns, trans-atlantic immigration, the Colonial Wars of Empire and the conquest of native lands.

361. Creation of the American Republic, 1763-1801.
The evolution of American republicanism, including its relationship with the philosophies of the Enlightenment and English political traditions, the political and economic causes of the American Revolution, the military history of the war, the alliance with France, the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, the emergence of political parties, and the presidencies of Washington and Adams.

362. Building a Nation, 1800-1850.
Modern America was built between 1800 and 1850: American cities grew at the greatest rate ever; the most sophisticated form of coercive labor in world history became a dominant institution; per capita levels of immigration were the highest ever; a new feminine ideal flourished; the first factories appeared; the public school, the Mormons, the prison, the department store, and "Wall Street" were born; the U.S. completed its continental boundaries; wars were fought against the British, Mexican and Native American nations; national leaders redefined the meaning of democracy.

363. Civil War and Reconstruction, 1850-1877. (BWS 363)
The crisis of the Union from the compromise of 1850 to the outbreak of war, including the growth of abolitionist sentiment, the rise of the Republican party, the election of Lincoln, and the role of ethnic and African-Americans in the conflict. Emancipation, reconstruction, the post-war era of reform, and the emergence of a New South. Race relations are a central theme of the course.

364. Emergence of Industrial America, 1870-1900.
Political trends in the late 19th century, including the role of urban machines and movements for reform and protest. The rise of large corporations and accompanying ideologies provoked criticism, while the mechanization of labor fostered unionism and socialism. Expanded immigration co-existed with intolerance of minorities and the nation became more varied in culture and artistic forms. Expansion ended the frontier, subdued the Native Americans and created new forms of agriculture and industry in the American West.

365. Workers in Industrial America.
The lives of American workers since the beginning of industrialization in the early 19th century and the social and political consequences of changes in work and the economy. Topics include the work experience, trade unions, radical parties, industrial relations, the development of working class culture and American attitudes toward work and leisure.

366. The United States, 1890-1940.
With a focus on politics and government, the course examines the consolidation of the modern industrial nation; the problem of equity and unity in a diverse population; the struggle between isolationism and interventionism in foreign relations; the Great Depression; and the development of the liberal political tradition.

367. Contemporary United States, 1940 to the Present.
Focusing on the issue of conflict and consensus in public life, the course examines World War II; the Cold War and anti-Communism; the struggles for equality and diversity; the decline of party politics and the liberal tradition; the Vietnam War; and the approach of the 21st century.

368. 19th Century U.S. Popular Culture.
Values in melodrama, theater, black face minstrelsy, music and popular novels and reform tracts; development of ideas about work and success; perceptions of marriage, family, sexuality; forms of art and architecture; growth of concert halls, museums and universities. Emphasis on the general traditions of success, family, home, slavery, racial values and the mixing of native and immigrant cultures.

369. 20th Century U.S. Popular Culture.
Transition from Victorianism to modern relations between the sexes; growth of youth culture, and faith in consumption society through movies, music and popular novels. Growth and development of Hollywood, vaudeville, popular music, nightlife and advertising.

371. American Social History.
Changing themes, including family history, a study of the evolution of the family, covering such topics as childhood, adolescence, women, and working patterns; race and ethnicity, a comparative study of racial and ethnic relations in the United States as well as abroad; and community history, a study of local history (including neighborhoods, towns, and community institutions), using especially the oral history method.

372. American Constitutional and Legal History to 1865.
An introduction to the origins and growth of American constitutional law from colonial times to the Civil War; a survey of the English common law heritage, the ideological roots of the American revolution, and the formation of the Constitution. The transformation of American law into a tool of economic development, and changing role of the legal profession will be explored. A study of the debates over slavery, stateís rights, and civil liberty will examine the coming of the Civil War. Readings and discussions will carefully evaluate U.S. Supreme Court decisions.

373. American Constitutional and Legal History since 1865.
Introduction to the law and the legal process in American history since 1865; constitutional law will form the central focus; civil liberties, minority rights, criminal justice, federalism and the process of adjusting political and economic power in a free enterprise system; Americansí instrumental uses of the law to effect social change. Readings and discussions will carefully evaluate U.S. Supreme Court decisions.

376. History of the American Frontier Movement.
Our national experience of expanding across the continent in competition with other societies and exploitation of opportunities; begins with establishment of European colonies and concludes in the late 20th century with the U.S. in a situation analogous to that of Europe almost four centuries earlier.

379. African-American History to 1865. (BWS 379)
This course is a general survey of African-American history from its African background to the end of the Civil War. It examines major themes/periods such as the gradual evolution of slavery in the colonial period, the impact of the Revolutionary War on African-Americans, slavery from the view of both the slaves and the slaveholders, the free African-American population prior to the Civil War, and the role(s) of African-Americans in intersectional strife.

380. African-American History Since 1865. (BWS 380)
This course is a general survey of African-American history from the period immediately following the end of the Civil War to the present. Among the major topics are Reconstruction and its opposition, the rise of discrimination, self-help organizing by African-Americans, the two World Wars and major northward migrations, and the Civil Rights and Black Power movements.

381. Rebels and Reformers in U.S. History. (BWS 388) (PAX 387) (WOST 303)
Prerequisites: 201 or 202. "Radicalism does not work in America." The course endeavors to assess the validity of this statement by examining five movements for social change in America: abolition, Womenís Rights, socialism, peace, and the quest for racial equality. Beginning with definitions of radicalism and reform, students explore movement ideologies and leaders, the organizations the movements spawned, the alliances they forged, and their constituencies to determine whether the various movements were radical or reformist. Students study conflicting views of the various movements through readings, lectures, films, and class discussion.

382. Immigration.
Survey of racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. from colonial times to the present; causes of immigration; pressure for and against assimilation; and impact of social mobility on the immigrant experience.

384. The Irish Diaspora in America.
The course will examine the origins and character of Irish immigration to the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and the impact of this immigration on American life.

385. The History of Chicago.
Both distinctive and representative, Chicagoís history is one of paradox. While George Pullman built a model industrial town in the suburbs, the Hull House Settlement helped with immigrant adjustment; citizensí fight for municipal reform gave rise to the political machine; the great migration of African-Americans produced both the ghetto and the suburban trend. In a city where "politics is the best game in town," the legacies of mayors Richard J. Daley and Harold Washington will be explored.

386. American Urban History.
The process of urbanization and the role of cities in American history; pattern of urban growth; problems faced by immigrants and minority groups; changing perceptions of municipal government and politics; and recurrent metropolitan dilemmas. Readings will introduce various methodological approaches.

389. The Vietnam War. (ASIA 389) (PAX 389)
Starts with the roots of involvement and proceeds through the war with the French, the replacement of the French by the U.S.; the republic under Diem, his war with the Viet Cong, his assassination and American escalation; the big scale American war 1965-68; the Tet offensive; the unseating of Lyndon Johnson; Nixon and Vietnamization; the destabilization of Cambodia; the failure of Vietnamization; and the final destruction of the Republic of Vietnam.

391. Asian American History. (ASIA 391)
Asians began arriving in the United States in the mid-1800ís. Chinese first, followed by Japanese, Koreans, Indians, Filipinos, Vietnamese, Laotians, Cambodians and others. This course studies the Asian migrations to Hawaii and the continental U.S. by examining such issues as the reasons for migration, changing U.S. receptivity, immigration legislation, Japanese/Japanese American internment during WWII, and post-war developments.

392. History of Sexuality in the United States. (WOST 320)
This course provides a historical introduction to sexual behaviors and attitudes in the United States from the pre-Columbian period to the present. The primary emphasis concerns the impact of social and political change on sexual norms and behavior. Particular attention is paid to changing standards of sexual morality, the evolving boundaries of sexual behavior, and their effect upon the structure and organization of the American family, physical intimacy and personal identity over the past three and one-half centuries.

393. American Culture and Society on Film
This course explores aspects of 20th century American history using motion pictures as basic texts. Topics vary by semester, but have included "From World War II to Vietnam" and "World War II as Living Memory."

394. The Sixties: Protest and Counterculture.
This course covers the turbulent years from 1960 to 1974, during which political activism on a grand scale reawakened in the U.S. It explores the relationships between the Civil Rights Movement, the New Left, the anti-war movement, the Women's Movement, and the counterculture, as well as their impact on American society.

395. Senior Colloquium.
Prerequisite: senior standing.

The study of the ways historians arrive at their interpretation and understanding of events. This is accomplished through a history of historical writing or through a special selected topic that illustrates the use of different methods and styles by past and present historians.

396H. Honors Colloquium.
Prerequisite: honors standing or permission of history honors director.

Directed readings and discussion around a central historical topic or problem; normally includes oral reports and written assignments, such as essays or book reviews. The topic or problem varies from semester to semester.

397H. Honors Tutorial.
Prerequisites: honors standing; senior standing.

In this capstone course, honors students undertake a major research project and produce an essay demonstrating appropriate historical scholarship, analysis and writing.

398. History Internship.
Students earn three credit hours while gaining valuable professional experience as interns in public and private institutions engaged in history-related projects. Permission is required from the History Department internship coordinator before registering. Applications are available on the History Department website.

399. Directed Study.

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