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Undergraduate Studies Catalog

R.N. BACCALAUREATE DEGREE COMPLETION TRACK

Registered nurses may pursue the baccalaureate degree in nursing with part-time or full-time enrollment. Students can fulfill the requirements of the liberal arts and sciences core through evening, weekday, weekend and summer school enrollment.

Loyola University Chicago also offers an R.N. to master’s degree for qualified registered nurses. Details may be found in The Graduate School catalog.

ADMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES for the R.N. Baccalaureate degree completion track

Application forms and credentials are submitted to Loyola University Chicago Undergraduate Admissions Office.

The following documents must be submitted at the time of application:

  1. official transcripts from previous schools attended including high school, nursing school, colleges;
  2. a copy of current Illinois nursing license.
Requirements:
  1. an overall minimum 2.5 ("C+") grade point average for all attempted courses, excluding nursing courses;
  2. a minimum grade of "C" in each course;
  3. graduation from an NLN-accredited school of nursing.
  4. Admissions decisions are based on the student’s materials presented as a whole and not on any one specific criteria.
Application may be made by ADN & Diploma RN’s to Loyola University School of Nursing with a minimum of 20 semester credits earned from an accredited college or university. Applicants are admitted to the pre-major curriculum in the School of Nursing until they qualify for admission to the nursing major. The School of Nursing reserves the right to determine eligibility for acceptance of the student into the nursing major.

Enrollment in the first clinical nursing courses can take place when a minimum of 50 semester credits has been earned including:

The required science core with a grade of "C" or better in each course; anatomy and physiology, microbiology, and chemistry courses must have a laboratory component and be equivalent in content to those offered at Loyola University;

A course in developmental psychology.

METHODS OF ACHIEVING CREDITS

Registered nurses may acquire the 20 credit hours of non-nursing courses required for admission to the School of Nursing in any of the following ways:

Registration at Loyola University Chicago

Challenge examinations may be offered by liberal arts and sciences departments. Arrangements for challenge examinations in arts and sciences disciplines must be coordinated through the School of Nursing. A fee per credit hour is attached to the administration of the challenge examination.

OR

College Level Examination Program (CLEP): Students wishing to earn college credit for academic experience gained through non-academic channels may do so through the CLEP program. For information on the maximum number of credit hours which can be earned and on the specific examinations which are eligible for Loyola credit, please consult the leaflet entitled Credit by Examination at Loyola, which may be obtained from the Undergraduate Admission Office. Credit by examination may not be taken for any course the student has already taken at Loyola.

Community College: Much of the liberal arts and sciences core can be transferred from a community college. An overall minimum grade point of 2.5 ("C+") must be attained in courses. Nursing courses are not transferable except in circumstances when a formal articulation agreement exists, and are not included in computation of the grade point average. A maximum of 64 semester or 96 quarter hours can be accepted.

University Courses: Applicants may apply to transfer course credits earned at another university. An overall minimum grade point average of 2.5 ("C+") must be attained. Nursing courses are not ordinarily transferred nor included in grade point computation.

An R.N. may elect to take the entire baccalaureate curriculum at Loyola as either a full or part-time student. No regularly scheduled course may be taken as an independent study by the student.

Earning 35 hours of credit for professional nursing experience at 35 hours per work year not to exceed 125 hours.

For R.N.s who hold a nonnursing baccalaureate degree, the Loyola core requirements for the BSN degree at Loyola are reduced from 81 to just 46 credits. For example, the number of history courses is reduced from 2 courses to just 1, and the number of philosophy and theology courses is reduced from a total of 6 courses to 2. For more information about these requirements and/or for individual counseling for the R.N./B.S.N. completion program, call The School of Nursing at 773-508-3249.

ADDITIONAL POLICIES AND INFORMATION

Loyola science and developmental psychology courses are generally offered in summer sessions as well as during the academic year.

Sciences taken in a non-degree program (diploma) are not accepted unless they were taken at an affiliated college and received college credit.

The Undergraduate Admission Office assists the School of Nursing R.N./B.S.N. coordinator with the initial counseling. After the student is admitted to Loyola University Chicago School of Nursing, the R.N./B.S.N. coordinator will provide official program planning.

The student will have five years from the date of acceptance into the program in which to complete the degree without a change in the program. After five years, the student’s program is subject to change if the curriculum changes. The student will have three years from the date of the first nursing courses in which to complete the nursing major.

Students not taking nursing courses for more than one year must apply to the director of the undergraduate program for a leave of absence. If on leave for more than one year, students must reapply. Students absent from nursing courses for more than two years may be required to repeat previously passed nursing courses. One year prior to planned entrance into the full time senior-level courses, the student must inform the school in writing of his/her intent to enter the senior year. This helps the school plan clinical spaces but does not guarantee that a space will be available in a given year. However, the school will guarantee a minimum number of spaces reserved exclusively for R.N. students.

Students in the R.N. degree completion option may challenge a maximum of forty-one credit hours: 26 hours in nursing and 15 credit hours from core liberal arts and sciences.

Challenge Examinations in Nursing: R.N. degree completion: students successfully completing the nursing challenge examinations (NLN Mobility Profile II) will have a grade of "credit" ("CR") posted to their permanent academic records for each course successfully challenged. Twenty credits of challenge exams are waived for persons who graduated from an NLNAC or CCNE accredited associate degree nursing program and who achieve a nursing GPA of 3.0 or better from their nursing school. Waiver is also allowed if the student’s first AA degree granting institution has an articulation agreement with Loyola University School of Nursing. Students who earned a 2.99 or less nursing GPA upon completion of their nursing program will be required to take the NLN mobility Profile II examination. Students not scoring sufficiently high enough to warrant receiving credit ("CR") will be required to either retake and pass the exam or to take the course covering the content of that examination. Students who have failed a course may not take the challenge examination for that course. Hours accumulated through the grade of credit ("CR") will be considered as earned hours toward graduation but will have no effect on the grade point average. Students may also challenge GNUR 293 and GNUR 338, prior to taking these courses. The challenge examinations are taken after being admitted into the program and well before beginning senior-level nursing courses. Please note a fee is required for each challenge examination.

Challenge Examinations in Liberal Arts and Sciences: Contingent upon academic qualifications, certain R.N. degree completion students may be encouraged to take challenge examinations in one or more of the liberal arts and sciences disciplines. Please consult College of Arts and Sciences for policies on grade and credit for challenge examinations in liberal arts and science courses. Please note a fee is required for each challenge examination.

The R.N. must bring college transcripts to Associate Dean of Academic Programs in Nursing, or the Undergraduate Admission Office to assist the counselor in program planning. Transcripts are officially evaluated when application has been made to the university.

Upon acceptance at Loyola University Chicago all credentials are forwarded to the School of Nursing and an advisor will assist the student with continued program counseling.

Requirement for graduation in the R.N./B.S.N. track is 120 credit hours. The last 45 hours of instruction must be taken in residence at Loyola. R.N./B.S.N. can earn up to 125 hours of college credit for professional nursing experience. 35 hours per calendar year of employment as a registered nurse up to a maximum of 125 hours or 4 years employment. This is evaluated through the presentation of a professional employment portfolio.

Once admitted to Loyola University Chicago, all coursework must be taken at Loyola.

All policies of Loyola University Chicago and the School of Nursing printed in the catalog apply to degree completion students as well.

CONTINUING EDUCATION

The School of Nursing offers continuing education programs and workshops primarily aimed at baccalaureate and higher degree nurses. Continuing education units (CEUs) may be offered with the programs. The school has established relationships in England, Belize, and Africa for credit in continuing education as well as volunteer opportunities.

The Niehoff School of Nursing will be phasing in a new community-focused curriculum beginning in Fall, 2001. Students’ program plans may be subject to change as a result of the curriculum changes. Updated program plans, course descriptions and course requirements will be presented to students when they begin their matriculation in the School of Nursing.
 
Degree Requirements for Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.S.N.)**
  Credit Hrs.
Nursing 51
Biophysical sciences: CHEM 151, 152; BIOL 152, 153; NTSC 210 19
Humanities 36
English 105, 106, one literature course; philosophy core requirements (9 hrs.); theology core requirements (9 hrs.); 
History 101, 102-107; communicative and expressive arts (CMUN 101 or THTR 100)
Behavioral sciences 15
Social science requirements; PSYC 101, 273, 331; plus one additional social science, PSYC 304 or CIEP 380
Electives 9
Total 130
Suggested Curriculum Program**
(Implemented Fall, 1995)
FRESHMAN PROGRAM      
First Semester Credit Hrs. Second Semester Credit Hrs.
Chemistry 151* 4 Chemistry 152* 4
English 105* 3 English 106* 3
History 101 3 History 102-107 3
Psychology 101 3 Expressive Arts 3
Elective - Theology 3
Nursing 101 3   16
  16    
SOPHOMORE PROGRAM      
Biology 152* 4 Biology 153* 4
Natural Science 210* 3 Psychology 273* 3
Literature 3 Nursing 205* 3
Philosophy 120 3 Nursing 206* 2
Theology 3 Philosophy 3
  16 Social science 3
      18
JUNIOR PROGRAM**      
Nursing 210# 4 Nursing 293• 3
Nursing 275_ 4 Nursing 275_ 4
Nursing 277_ 4 Nursing 277_ 4
Nursing 279_ 4 Nursing 279_ 4
Nursing 281_ 4 Nursing 281_ 4
Statistics• 3 Psychology 331• 3
(PSYC 304 or CPSY 380) 15 Elective 3
      17
SENIOR PROGRAM**    
Nursing 340
3
Nursing 375_ 5
Nursing 360
2
Nursing 377_ 4
Nursing 375_
5
Nursing 379_ 4
Nursing 377_
4
Nursing 381_ (WI) 5
Nursing 379_
4
Theology 3
Philosophy
3
Elective 3
 
16 or 17
  15 or 16

* Prerequisite or corequisite to clinical nursing courses

_ Only two of the courses taken in one semester

# Prerequisite to second semester junior year

• Prerequisite to senior year

** Subject to change as a result of curriculum revision

All Science Courses Must Include Laboratory Experience

Inorganic and organic chemistry will be accepted in transfer for CHEM 151 and 152.

Microbiology will be accepted in transfer for Natural Science 210.

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION

I. Concept Courses

The following courses are developed according to the concepts identified in the conceptual framework of the School of Nursing. The first concept course (GNUR 205) provides the foundation for all succeeding courses in the curriculum.

GNUR 101. Introduction to Healthcare Professions. (FS) (3)
This course introduces freshman students to the healthcare professions. Through selected class and extracurricular experiences, the students will reflect upon choice of profession, and their ideas about health care. Class discussions will focus on the history and the future of health care, and on issues related to healthcare reform. Small group discussions will focus on health assessment. Personal responsibility for maintaining one’s own healthcare record will be stressed.

GNUR 204. (WI) Bridge Course in Nursing Concepts: Introduction to Organizing Concepts of the Curriculum and Professional Socialization Strategies. (4)
Prerequisite: R.N. students only; corequisites: BIOL 152, 153; CHEM 151; NTSC 210.
This bridge course provides the R.N. student with an introduction to the conceptual framework of the curriculum. General System Theory is presented as a basis for the school’s conceptual framework. Adult learning strategies are used to socialize the returning student to the university setting. (RN/BSN & RN/MSN majors only)

GNUR 205. Professional Role Development I: Practitioner. (3)
This course builds upon and integrates concepts presented in GNUR 206. It is designed to introduce the learner to the practice of professional nursing. Selected subconcepts of person from the school’s conceptual framework are presented and related to the diagnostic process in nursing with an emphasis on fundamental techniques necessary for sound health assessment and beginning decision-making skills. Basic client care problems that are common to many clinical situations, and nursing interventions utilized to deal with these problems, are presented. (Majors only)

GNUR 206. Concepts in Nursing I: Introduction to Organizing Concepts of the Curriculum. (2)
Prerequisite or corequisite: GNUR 205.
This course presents an introduction to the concepts which form the foundation of the discipline of nursing. General System Theory is presented as the organizing structure for the conceptual framework of the school. Discussion of the major concepts and selected subconcepts of the conceptual framework form the basis for understanding the ways in which nursing knowledge is organized. Role theory and the role expectation of the professional nurse are introduced. (Majors only)

GNUR 210. Concepts in Nursing II: Therapeutic Modalities. (3)
This course integrates concepts of fluids and electrolytes, acid-base balance, pharmacology, and nutrition as they apply to the discipline of nursing. A modular approach, utilizing case studies and the nursing process, explicates and applies the content in relation to clients who have alterations in oxygenation, metabolism, mobility, immunocompetence, reproduction, and perception across the life span. Laboratory practice in the administration of medications and enteral nutrition is provided. Clinical application of knowledge and skills is demonstrated through the use of the nursing process. Must be successfully completed prior to second semester junior year. (Majors only)

GNUR 293. Pathophysiology: General Concepts Related to Pathophysiology. (4)
This course provides the student with knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in pathophysiological processes. The concepts of immunity, oxygenation, metabolism, mobility, perception and reproduction are discussed. The effects of age and associated differences in adaptive capacity are related to disease processes. Opportunities for the application of pathophysiology content to case studies representative of a variety of age groups and clinical settings are provided. Must be successfully completed prior to senior year. (Majors only)

II. Role Courses

The following courses are developed according to roles that may be assumed by the nurse in the practice of professional nursing. Prerequisites identified by an asterisk (*) in the suggested curriculum outline must be completed or taken concurrently with GNUR 205. The final role course (GNUR 381) is described under the section entitled "Clinical Courses."

GNUR 340. Professional Role Development III: Manager, Leader. (3)
This course is an introduction to the roles of the professional nurse as manager and leader. Knowledge of previously studied role elements are integrated in these two facets of professional practice. Major components of the course include: management, career leadership strategies, career preparation, and professional issues. Variables that influence the present and future directions of professional nursing practice are examined. (Majors only)

GNUR 342. Principles of Management and Leadership Roles. (2)
This course is an introduction to the roles of the professional nurse as leader and manager. Major components of the course include: leadership, management, career preparation and professional issues. Factors influencing the present and future directions of professional nursing practice are examined. Opportunities are provided for application of this knowledge in a variety of classroom and independent exercises designed to enhance professional practice. (R.N./B.S.N. & R.N./M.S.N. majors only)

GNUR 360. Professional Role Development II: Researcher. (2)
Prerequisite/corequisite: STAT 380, CIEP 380 or PSYC 304.
This course is an introduction to the role of the professional nurse as researcher. Major components include: principles and process of scientific inquiry; relationships among theory, practice and research; basic types of research designs; and the ethical, legal, socioeconomic and political factors which impinge on research and research utilization. Selected nursing research literature is critically examined. (Majors only)

III. Clinical Courses

The following courses are taught using a conceptual approach. Each two to three credit theory course includes a two credit, concurrent, clinical laboratory component that is graded on a pass-fail basis. Each theory course must be taken with the corresponding clinical practicum.

In the four clinical courses of junior year, the concept of development, as a curriculum strand, is reinforced through the selection of a specific client age group. The concept of health is incorporated into the clinical courses with emphasis on health promotion, health maintenance, and/or restoration of health. In the clinical settings, students integrate knowledge from their clinical courses as well as knowledge from role and concept courses.

Students use this knowledge as they apply the nursing process in the care of clients and families.

In senior year, the first three clinical courses are designed to build on the junior courses and provide learning opportunities with increasingly complex client problems and clinical settings. The final senior clinical course (GNUR 381) provides for synthesis of the academic experience and transition from the student role to that of the professional nurse.

GNUR206. Practice of Professional Nursing.
This course introduces the fundamental principles of nursing through classroom, laboratory and clinical experiences. These experiences will help integrate nursing and assessment skills in order to operationalize the nursing process. The Niehoff school of Nursing conceptual framework, presented in GNUR205, will provide a foundation for organization for all experiences gained in this course.

MCN 275. Nursing of Child-bearing Families Theory. (2) MCN 275L Clinical (2)
Presents concepts related to the promotion and maintenance of biophysical and psychosocial health of maternity clients and newborns. Assessments and interventions which lessen or reverse threats to well-being of childbearing families are taught. A brief historical overview and the attitudes and values related to the ethical, legal, political and economic issues in maternity nursing are presented. In clinical settings, students apply knowledge from nursing and other courses in caring for normal and selected high risk clients. (Majors only)

MCN 277. Nursing of Children from Infancy Through Adolescence. (2) MCN 277L Clinical. (2)
This course presents concepts related to the health and nursing needs of children from infancy through adolescence. Emphasis is placed on the promotion and maintenance of their physical and psychosocial well-being. Treatment modalities which lessen or reverse threats to the child’s well-being are taught. A brief historical overview as well as attitudes and values related to the political and economic issues relevant to pediatric nursing are discussed. In the clinical settings, students apply knowledge from nursing and other courses in the care of children and their families. (Majors only)

MSN 279. Nursing of Middle-Aged Adults. (2) MSN 279L Clinical.
Concepts related to the health and nursing needs of middle-aged adults are presented. Emphasis is placed on the promotion and maintenance of the physical and psychosocial well-being of the client. Selected concepts and treatment modalities which lessen or reverse threats to well-being in the client resulting from altered adaptive processes, e.g., metabolism and immunity, are taught. Surgical intervention as both stressor and treatment modality is explained. A brief historical overview as well as attitudes and values related to the ethical, legal, political and economic issues relevant to nursing care of middle-aged adults are discussed. In the clinical settings students apply knowledge from nursing and other courses when they use the nursing process in the care of middle-aged adults. (Majors only)

MSN 281. Nursing of the Elderly. (2) MSN 281L Clinical. (2)
Concepts related to the health and nursing needs of older adults are presented. Emphasis is placed on the promotion and maintenance of the physical and psychosocial well-being of the client. Selected concepts and treatment modalities which lessen or reverse threats to well-being in older adults resulting from altered adaptive processes, e.g. oxygenation, metabolism, mobility, sexuality, and perception, are taught. A brief historical overview as well as values related to the ethical, legal, political and economic issues relevant to the health care of older adults are discussed. In the clinical settings, students apply knowledge from nursing and other courses when they use the nursing process in the care of older adults. (Majors only)

MSN 375. Nursing of Clients with Acute Illness. (3) MSN 375L Clinical. (2)
This course is designed to present selected concepts with application to more complex nursing situations. The client population includes age groups from adolescence through the elderly. The focus is on the nursing care of clients who are experiencing life-threatening illness, with emphasis on health restoration and rehabilitation. Ethical, legal, political and economic issues and research studies are addressed. In the clinical setting, students apply knowledge from nursing and other courses. The course builds on prior knowledge and skills and provides content for utilizing the nursing process in the care of clients in a tertiary care setting. (Majors only)

CMAN 376. Nursing Care Concepts in Community Health and Acute Care Settings. (6)
Prerequisite: R.N. students only.
This course presents selected concepts with application to specific complex nursing situations. The content focus is primary, secondary and tertiary prevention along with emphasis on health promotion and restoration. Ethical, legal, political and economic issues, and research to enhance practice are addressed. This course builds on prior knowledge and skill in the care of clients in a variety of community health and tertiary care settings. (RN/BSN & RN/MSN majors only)

CMAN 377. Nursing of Clients with Mental Illness Theory. (2) CMAN 377L Clinical. (2)
This course is designed to present selected concepts with application to specific complex nursing situations. The focus is the nursing care of clients who display psychiatric disorders. Emphasis is on therapeutic communication, the nurse-client relationship, and nursing assessment as means to promote health restoration. Attitudes, values, ethical and legal decision-making relevant to the nursing care of clients with psychopathological conditions are discussed. In the clinical settings students apply knowledge from nursing and other courses. The course provides the knowledge base and skills for use of the nursing process in psychiatric/mental health settings. (Majors only)

CMAN 379. Nursing of Families, Aggregates and Communities Theory. (2) CMAN 379L Clinical. (2)
This course is designed to apply concepts to complex nursing situations outside of institutional settings. Nursing and public health concepts are integrated to provide a theory basis for the care of families, aggregates and communities which include all age groups. The content focus is primary, secondary and tertiary prevention with clients in community settings with emphasis on health promotion and restoration. Attitudes, values, ethical, legal, economic and political decision-making as they relate to these clients and community are discussed. The course provides the knowledge base and skills for use in a variety of community settings. (Majors only)

GNUR 381. (WI) Clinical Role Transition. (5)
This writing-intensive course is designed to assist the student in the process of socialization into professional nursing. Through a guided intensive clinical experience, students assume the role of a beginning professional nurse practitioner. Through seminars, clinical experiences, and analysis of literature, opportunities for integration of nursing and non-nursing concepts are provided. Emphasis on leadership and management promote the transition from the student role to that of the professional nursing practitioner. (Majors only)

IV. Nursing Electives

The following courses, which cover a wide range of topics, are available as nursing electives. Four of these elective courses (GNUR 160, MCN 215, MSN 230 and CMAN 368) are for non-nursing majors.

CMAN 160. Consumer Health. (CIEP 160) (2)
This course is designed to provide an overview of health with emphasis on health teaching as an integral part of the curriculum. Concepts of health education are applied in the selection and altering of a negative health behavior. The many facets of health in today’s society are explored. The course is for non-nursing students.

MCN 215. Women’s Health. (WOST 215) (3)
This course is designed to provide an overview of multiple factors influencing the health and lifestyle of women. The purpose of the course is to help women regulate, control and become more active participants in their own health maintenance. Health problems faced by women, historical perspective of women’s health, as well as current barriers to health are discussed. Open to non-nursing majors.

MSN 230. Crisis Care on Campus. (PHED 147) (2)
The course is designed to acquaint the student with basic assessments and interventions for campus emergencies including athletic injuries, alcohol and substance abuse, suicide prevention, and selected situations requiring first aid. CPR is included. The course is for non-nursing majors.

GNUR 235. Transcultural Nursing. (3)
This course is designed to provide students with a cultural perspective on health and illness beliefs, values, and practices of their own and other cultures. These perspectives are given within the framework of the cultural anthropology and nursing disciplines.

GNUR 320. Clinical Nursing Elective. (3)
This course is designed to provide an opportunity for beginning senior-level students from baccalaureate nursing programs to investigate and develop a self-directed learning activity in relation to clinical practice in an acute-care setting. Students gain knowledge and experience in the application of the self-directed learning process. Students also have the opportunity to enhance their skills in the clinical setting. Patient care resources and current issues in nursing are assessed and discussed in weekly seminars. (Majors only)

GNUR 324. Spiritual Dimensions of Nursing Practice. (2)
This course provides an opportunity to explore aspects of nursing care from the perspective of the personal quest for meaning. Various spiritual traditions are examined in light of hope and meaning. Students explore their own spiritual journey, their own beliefs and how they can give nursing care to the distressed spirit within the nursing process.

GNUR 325. Selected Topics in Clinical Nursing. (1-3)
(Some courses have prerequisites.)
This course will provide the student with content knowledge specific to particular areas of nursing. Topics may include critical care, emergency, high-risk childbearing families, community health, oncologic, rehabilitation, gerontologic nursing, or comparative health systems including international study.

GNUR 330. Alternative Methods of Healing. (3)
Holistic health and selected alternative methods of healing will be explored. The focus will be on viewing health as a state in which the human body, mind and spirit are integrated.

GNUR 338. Physical Assessment for Clinical Nursing. (3)
Required for registered nurse students. This course offers an experience through didactic material and simulated clinical practice to develop a beginning level of skill for physical assessment. Although the course is based on a medical model, it is stressed that acquired skills will be integrated into the nursing process. The goal is to provide the knowledge to obtain and record a complete patient data base, identify nursing and medical problems so a plan can be effected to meet the healthcare needs of the client and facilitate communication with health care professionals. (Majors only)

CMAN 368. Introduction to Health Care Management
This course, open to arts and science, business, and nursing majors, provides an introduction to the management in healthcare systems in the United States. The process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling will structure the exploration of healthcare management. The history of healthcare systems, current healthcare delivery models, sources of financing, and theories supporting management will be discussed. Ethical concerns in healthcare management and differences and similarities between healthcare and other organization management will be explored.

GNUR 386. Introduction to Information Systems for Health Care Management. (3)
Prerequisites: GNUR 340; permission of chairperson.
This course presents information systems as used in healthcare settings. Computer programs used to assist or facilitate management decisions are discussed. Patient classification, staffing and scheduling, quality assurance, productivity monitoring and integrated hospital information systems are introduced. Selected microcomputer data base systems are available for students’ self-paced learning. (MSN & majors only)

GNUR 388. AIDS: Interdisciplinary Issues. (CIEP 335) (3)
This interdisciplinary course is designed to inform the student about the spectrum of diseases caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The course also enables students, guest speakers and faculty to discuss HIV-related issues such as counseling, economic, educational, ethical, legal, medical, policy, social and spiritual.

GNUR 399. Independent Study. (1-5)
(Requires approval of Associate Dean Academic Programs in Nursing.)

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