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Undergraduate Studies Catalog


Lake Shore Campus:
Damen Hall 921
Phone: 773-508-3445
FAX: 733-508-7099

Water Tower Campus:
Lewis Towers 900
Phone: 312-915-7801
FAX: 312-915-8593

Professors Emeriti: W. Bates, F. Grollig, S.J., H. Lopata, A. Ojeda

Professors: R. Block, J. Calcagno, M. Fredericks, C. Fry, K. Johnson, L. Langman, K. McCourt, P. Nyden, J. Wittner

Associate Professors: K. Adams, D. Amick, P. Arnold, P. Breidenbach, A. Figert, A. Grauer, K. Henson, A. Karanja, F. Kniss, L. Miller, P. Whalley (chairperson), T. Wright

Assistant Professors: E. Ignacio, M. Krogh, Y. Lau

Both Sociology and Anthropology study the variety of ways in which people today and in the past have organized their daily lives. These two disciplines share a historical heritage in theory, subject matter, and research techniques. Yet, in the contemporary world, each discipline has developed particular areas of emphasis.

While encouraging students to take courses in both Anthropology and Sociology, the department offers the following choice of majors at the Lake Shore Campus: a major in Sociology; a major in Anthropology and a joint Sociology-Anthropology major.

Major in Sociology (SOCL)


Sociology is the study of group life: its characteristics, changes, causes, and consequences. Introducing students to sociology as a social science, the department seeks to develop a critical understanding of the ways in which people relate to each other through the organization of society and the ways in which society influences our lives. With this understanding, students are better able to raise questions about the direction in which society is going, to interpret social trends, and to examine significant social issues such as crime and delinquency, the changing family, life in the city and suburbs, shifts in population, the structure of inequality, social change, the impact of the mass media, the influence of new technology, the implications of health-seeking behavior, community-based efforts to bring about change, and the impact of large scale organizations. Sociologists frequently serve as advisors to public and private organizations seeking to better understand needs and services provided to citizens, members, or clients.

Sociology is a valuable liberal arts major for students planning careers in fields such as law, health, business, government, religion, social research, market research, criminology, demography, medicine, social psychology, public administration, gerontology, education, social work, and community planning.

Organization of Courses: SOCL 101 is intended for students who want to major in sociology or who want a systematic introduction to the science of sociology. SOCL 121-126 are designed for students who wish to see how the sociological perspective is applied to a single topic area. Any 100-level course may be used to fulfill partially the core curriculum requirements in social science.

SOCL 205 and 206 are further introductory courses for majors. SOCL 210 through 285 cover special applications of sociology that may be of particular interest to students in other majors.

SOCL 301 through 370 are seminar courses designed to complement and build upon the basic courses.

Advanced courses (371 and above) require permission from the chairperson or department undergraduate advisor. Students who would like to gain experience in applying sociological skills to work in community, government, social service, and business settings are strongly advised to take 380 (Internship). Highly qualified advanced students, with the permission of the department chair and The Graduate School, may take graduate-level courses (400-level) to fulfill part of their undergraduate course requirements.

Requirements for Majors: The required courses for sociology majors are 205, 206, 301, and 365. These courses provide the theory and methodology background needed for more advanced work. Qualified students wanting more extensive background in qualitative methods may want to take SOCL 371 (Fieldwork) or SOCL 412, the graduate-level course in qualitative methods. Besides the four required courses, majors will take seven additional courses, five of which must be from 210-399. One course taken in a related field may be counted toward the major with the permission of the chair or undergraduate advisor. SOCL 380, the internship course, is counted as one course toward the major regardless of credit hours. In choosing courses, majors should consult with their department advisor. A copy of the sociology major requirements checklist is available from the department. In completing major requirements, no more than four substantive courses (twelve semester credit hours) will be accepted in transfer from other colleges and universities.

Recommended Course Sequence for Majors: Majors should begin their sociology sequence with a 100-level course. SOCL 205, 206 and 301 should be completed ideally by the end of sophomore year, but certainly by the end of junior year. In choosing major electives, priority should be given to the basic substantive courses (210-285).

SOCL 365 should be taken in the senior year. All required courses are offered each semester on an alternating day and evening schedule.

Students who intend to pursue graduate study in sociology are urged to consult a faculty advisor or the Sociology-Anthropology chairperson as soon as possible to receive guidance about course selection and graduate school requirements.

Credit Hrs.
Sociology 205, 206, 301, 365 and at least seven additional courses
English 105 and 106
Foreign language
Literature core
Communicative/expressive arts core
History core
Mathematics core
Natural science core
Philosophy core
Theology core
Electives to complete minimum total of 128 hours
TOTAL    128


Double Majors: Many students whose interests are not limited to one discipline find a double major is desirable. Frequently, another social science (such as political science or psychology) is selected as a second major, but majors may also find anthropology, philosophy, biology, theology, languages and other fields useful.

Minor Sequence in Sociology: In choosing elective courses students may wish to take a minor sequence in sociology. They may do this by completing five courses in sociology in addition to SOCL 101 (or its equivalent).

Students who minor in sociology are advised to choose electives with some focus in mind (e.g., law and urban problems, organizations and industry, social policy concerns) and to consult the department chairperson or the departmentís undergraduate advisor. Only two 100-level courses in sociology may be counted toward the minor. Any courses taken for a minor in sociology may be applied to the departmentís major requirements, if the student should decide to take sociology as a major. In completing minor requirements, only two courses (six semester credit hours) will be accepted in transfer from other colleges and universities.

Honors Program in Sociology: Students majoring in Sociology or Sociology-Anthropology are eligible to graduate with "distinction" in their major. This option is available to students both in the college honors program and those who are not. Distinction is available to highly qualified students who are interested in furthering their knowledge of specific areas of the discipline. This option will strengthen the academic background of students planning to go on to graduate or professional school.

Distinction is available to students in Sociology who achieve a 3.4 grade point average overall and in their major and either (1) write a satisfactory honors thesis under the supervision of a faculty member or (2) take two graduate courses in sociology and receive a grade of "B" or better. Permission to enroll in graduate courses must be obtained from the chairperson, the course instructor, and The Graduate School. Interested students should speak to the department undergraduate program advisor.

Certification Requirements for Teaching Sociology in High School: For information on teacher certification requirements, consult page XX in this catalog. Sociology majors interested in certification should also see the chairperson of the Sociology-Anthropology department.


101. The Sociological Perspective: An Introduction.
This course introduces the way sociologists view human behavior, and, in particular, how the sociological perspective differs from the individualistic view most people have. It demonstrates how sociology is helpful to people in understanding their own behavior and the world they live in, and to society in solving its problems. A wide range of concepts will be explained and illustrated with current research data and case studies.

121. Social Problems. (PAX 121)
This course may provide an overview of current social problems (e.g., poverty, unemployment, delinquency, family violence) or it may focus on a selected area and explore that in depth (e.g., crime and delinquency, social protest and social movements, poverty and homelessness). In addition to analyzing the roots of social problems, social policy concerns and solutions are addressed.

122. Race and Ethnic Relations. (ASIA 122) (BWS 122) (PAX 122)
This course examines relationships among various ethnic and racial groups in America, patterns of immigration, assimilation and mobility, and interethnic conflicts and coalitions. Although the perspective is often historical, contemporary data will be used to explore the question of the persisting impact of ethnicity and race. Special attention is paid to the relationship between race and social class.

123. Mass Media and Popular Culture. (WOST 123)
This course examines the social organization and function of mass communication in contemporary society and its impact on values, expectations, and life styles; the relation of mass media to specialized interest groups in society; and the role of mass communications as reflector and determinant of popular culture with a particular emphasis on the media constructions of gender, race, and class.

124. Women in Society. (WOST 124)
This course is a sociological inquiry into the situation of women in contemporary American society. The course focuses on topics such as: women in the family, the community, and the labor force; the development and persistence of sex-linked social roles; and the cultural meaning of gender differences as shown in the popular media. Special attention is paid to the historical roots of contemporary social and political issues facing women.

125. Chicago: Growth of a Metropolis.
Using Chicago as the subject, this course seeks to deepen understanding of some of the major social forces that influence urban life. Attention will be given to the growth of Chicago since the 1830s, with specific reference to immigration patterns, ethnic neighborhoods, political and social organizations, the role of churches, industrial development, and the ways these have changed over time. Particular urban issues, e.g., housing, transportation, welfare, education, health services, and crime are examined.

126. Science, Technology and Society.
A broad introduction to the study of science and technology from a distinctively sociological perspective. This course examines how scientific knowledge and technologies are created and constructed, the relationship between science and technological development, and how both science and technology affect our daily lives. The course is aimed at science and non-science majors alike and will seek to demystify science and technologies by placing them in social and historical context. There are no prerequisites for this class.

205. Sociological Thought.
Prerequisite: any sociology course or the permission of the instructor.
This courses explores certain key questions: Why is there inequality? How does social change occur? How is the society we live in different from that of other generations? How did our social world come to be the way it is? Are there alternative social arrangements that may yield more equality, more efficiency, more justice? Questions like these have led social thinkers to investigate phenomena as large-scale as revolutions, as personal as suicide, as mundane as house-work, and as exotic as religious cults. We will investigate how, when, and why these questions emerged and we will critically evaluate a variety of sociological responses to them. Throughout, we will pay special attention to classical sociological traditions and their linkages to contemporary concerns.

206. Principles of Social Research.
An introduction to the basic research methodologies of sociology. Students will learn how to select methodologies appropriate for various research projects. A variety of methods used in sociological analysis and data generation will be covered: secondary data analysis, surveys, interviewing, field research, participant observation, historical analysis, and sampling.

210. Work and the Workplace.
This course looks at the nature of work and how it has changed over time, e.g., with industrialization, the growth of the service sector, and new technologies. Examines issues relating to management, labor organizations, and government regulations. Specific topics may include: shifts in womenís employment patterns; industrial communities and plant closings; the permanently unemployed; changing attitudes toward work and company-union relations.

212. Patterns of Criminal Activity.
Analysis of a wide range of activities that are defined as criminal from the perspectives of society, offenders, and victims. Types of crime covered include violent and personal, occupational, political, conventional, organized, professional, and property. Attention to how these crimes are similar, how they differ, and how society responds to them.

215. Law and Society.
The law as a social institution and the lawyer as an occupation are examined. Attention is given to the development and change in definitions of what is legal and illegal, the growth of the many facets of the legal system (courts, regulatory agencies, criminal and civil divisions), the social control functions of law, and the impact on society of an ever-growing and more specialized legal system.

220. The Sociology of Violence.
The threat of violence is a daily concern. In this course we will study the social causes and consequences of violence, and the ways violence is defined and acted upon by police, courts, community associations, the media, and other parties. Emphasis on domestic violence, gang violence, criminal violence, international violence, and other dimensions of violence will vary, depending on the faculty assigned to teach the course.

221. Aging in Culture and Society. (ANTH 221)
Age is a principle of social organization and classification. This course examines effects of domestic and kinship organization, cultural values, modernization, and community formation upon the prestige of older people. Demographic and cultural examination of the current position and the future of older people in industrial societies is explored.

222. Poverty and Social Welfare in America.
This course examines the concepts and definitions of poverty, current welfare programs, the development of the welfare state, and the politics of poverty. International comparisons and alternative directions for social welfare are explored.

225. Sociology of Health Care.
This course looks at the contributions of the sociology of medicine, with particular attention to: social psychological factors in physical and mental illness; medical education; the health professionals (physicians, dentists, nurses, marginal practitioners); interpersonal relations in medical settings; the organization and use of health services and agencies; old age, death, and dying.

228. Sociology of the African- American Experience. (BWS 228)
A sociological inquiry into the historical and contemporary experience of African-Americans. The course will examine the traditional views that sociology held of the African-American community; the development of an African-American sociology as an alternative frame of reference; the nature and function of African-American institutions; racism and its impact on the African-American community; social stratification; mass communications; liberation movements; family; and church. Social movements and social change, urban and institutional processes, social values and collective behavior, and African-Americans and public policy are among the broad range of topics to be explored.

230. Self and Society.
Examines the basic theories of human socialization, the acquisition of language and meaning, the development of the self and the content of the self-concept. Social interaction, social relations and social roles are also analyzed, as is involvement in social groups. The course follows people from infancy to adulthood through different social worlds and roles. Various forms of collective behavior will also be explored from a social psychological perspective.

231. Childhood and Society.
Childhood is a product of cultural and social institutional patterns, as well as a crucial antecedent of personality development and functioning. This course looks at childhood in different societies with special focus on modern industrial society.

234. Urban Sociology.
The emergence of cities, focusing on the social, political, economic and cultural processes involved in the continuing growth and change of the city and suburbs.

235. Community.
This course studies the sociologistsí concept of community, and applies the theoretical concerns to several empirical explorations of community. Special attention is given to urban communities, although other types (e.g., ethnic, utopian) are looked at. Attention is given to the functions of community organizations, the contemporary neighborhood movement, and the impact of social policies on community.

236. Birth, Work, Marriage and Death: The Demography of Social Life.
How is society affected by changes in demographic factors such as fertility, labor force participation, marriage and divorce, and death? Attention will focus on the utility of such data in analyzing social change, the applications to the development of business, social and government programs and forecasts, and the methods used to collect census and related demographic information. Both the American experience and comparisons between developed and developing nations will be considered.

237. Professions and Society.
The organization of that sector of the work world which is included in the professions and semi-professions. Examines how professions emerge and change over time, the sources of conflict and strain within and between professions, how professions are socialized, and the relationships between different professions and their clients.

240. Family. (WOST 242)
The modern family is traced through the life cycle, with special attention to social class, ethnic, racial and other variations. Consideration of alternatives to marriage and the family as well as connections between a personís roles in the family and outside the family.

245. Religion and Society. (RCS 245)
Analyzes the relationships between religious and other social institutions, and between religious movements or organizations and society; consideration of functional alternatives to traditional religion; reviews the development of denominations, sects and cults in the modern world. Emphasis placed on classical as well as modern theories and definitions of religion. The course addresses the question of religious plausibility in the modern world.

250. Inequality in Society. (ASIA 250) (BWS 250) (PAX 250)
An examination of the processes and resulting structures by which people are differentiated on the basis of class, race, ethnicity, and gender. Emergence and maintenance of social classes, class conflict, social mobility and changes over time in the system as a whole. Attention will be given to both classical and modern theories of social inequality.

255. Deviance and Social Control.
Forms of social behavior that depart from or conflict with accepted standards within a given social group or society (e.g., crime and delinquency, mental illness, political protest). Special attention to leading theories of the causes of deviant behavior, especially the importance of social norms as both constraints against and ways of determining deviance. The course will examine how cultural standards of deviance differ among groups within a society, as well as the various means society uses to control deviance (e.g., punishment, rehabilitation, exile).

260. Power in Society.
Sociological theories and case studies of power, authority, and social change. It explores the ways in which power relations perpetuate social inequality between classes and social groups, and the ways in which social conflicts and power struggles transform these relations. Special attention will be directed toward: the processes of power in economic systems, political systems, and organizations; the cultural and ideological underpinnings of power relationships; and political struggles for social change.

261. Social Movements and Social Change.
The dynamics of collective behavior social movements that attempt to bring about social change. Factors affecting the growth, structure, evolution, and impact of social movements are studied. Groups studied range from revolutionary to reform, historical to contemporary.

262. Social Movements of the 1960ís.
Social movements and social issues of the 1960ís: why they emerged, how they developed, and what lasting impact they have had on American society. Changes in American culture, e.g., music, family values, and career orientation, are also studied. Theories of generational consciousness, political socialization, social movements, and social change are studied. Specific social movements, such as the civil rights, anti-war, feminist, and student rights are examined. The relationship between sixtiesí social movements and contemporary social movements is considered.

265. Economy and Society.
The economy as a social process is studied. Specific topics, e.g., depression, unemployment, affirmative action, oligopoly control, and consumer behavior, will be considered in different historical and social contexts. A broad spectrum of theoretical views will be examined.

270. Sociology of Science.
Science is a distinctive form of social organization, with its own culture, rewards, careers, social stratification, and gender division. It is also a particular form of knowledge, sharing many of the attributes of other types of knowledge such as religion and common sense. In teaching science as a human, social enterprise, the course will focus particularly on common practices of science both in the laboratory and the wider public arena, and examine the role scientists play in political debate as credentialed experts. The course is aimed at scientists and non-scientists alike.

272. Environmental Sociology. (ESP 272) (PAX 272)
This course examines the relationship between social life and the natural environment, considering how the natural world shapes the social world as well as human impact on the environment. The course reviews important sociological work but also examines writing from a variety of fields, (e.g., ethics, biology, geography, international studies) that carry a sociological thrust. Readings consider the economic, political, organizational, and cultural dimensions of environmental issues. The course systematically analyzes a range of controversial environmental issues as special problems.

280. Topics in Contemporary Sociology.
The course will examine a contemporary sociological research issue in detail. Typically, topics represent specialized or newly developed areas of sociological inquiry. Topics will vary from semester to semester. May be repeated with permission of department chairperson.

301. Statistics for Social Research.
Prerequisite: 206.
The course provides a comprehensive introduction to statistical analysis in social research. Topics include: univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis; computer applications; and interpretation of results. Students receive extensive experience in using computers and statistical packages for social scientists.

335. Urban Semester Seminar. (PLSC 335)
An opportunity to gain an understanding of how a city works not only by studying social, political, economic, and cultural institutions in Chicago, but also by getting involved in research projects with community organizations in seeking solutions to pressing urban issues. The course provides a "home base" for all students enrolled in the Urban Semester. In cooperation with the Loyola Center for Urban Research and Learning (CURL), all students are involved in collaborative research and action projects with community-based organizations or citywide civic groups. Topics vary but include topics related to the study of cities and Chicago in particular: global cities; racial and ethnic diversity; social change and power; uneven development; religion; health; government policies; and educational reform.

365. Social Theory and Social Research.
Prerequisites: 205, 301, senior standing, or instructor or chairperson approval.
This course will focus on one or more issues of recent sociological thinking and research. Students will critically evaluate relevant research and will design and conduct appropriate empirical investigations. The course provides an opportunity to bring the full complement of sociological skills to bear on an issue of substantial theoretical and/or practical importance.

370. Undergraduate Seminars in Special Topics.
Prerequisite: instructor or chairperson consent.
Study of a particular topic, theme, or social problem by intensive review of the literature and/or research. These seminars are intended to train students who have completed a major in sociology in working on specialized topics of interest to them or the faculty. May be repeated.

371. Fieldwork.
Qualitative forms of sociological analysis, particularly participant observation, intensive interviewing, and the uses of documentary data. Students will read and analyze examples of qualitative sociology and carry out projects to learn aspects of field research.

372. Directed Readings.
Prerequisite: instructor or chairperson consent.

380. Internship. (3 or 6)
Prerequisite: instructor or chairperson consent.
Supervised field experience and an opportunity to apply skills and analysis. Minimum of 15 hours per week working in a selected community organization, social agency, or business marketing research firm. Students must see the departmentís internship coordinator in the semester prior to the one in which they register for this course. Placements have included work with the elderly, youth, neighborhood organizations, womenís groups, and the mentally ill; it is also possible to apply research skills to work with local groups on issues such as housing, crime, and neighborhood revitalization.

397-398-399. Independent Study Projects.
Prerequisite: instructor or chairperson consent.

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