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Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161-180)

Herbert W. Benario

Emory University

A bust of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (c)2001 Justin Paola

Introduction and Sources

The Vita of the emperor in the collection known as the Historia Augusta identifies him in its heading as Marcus Antoninus Philosophus, "Marcus Antoninus the Philosopher." Toward the end of the work, the following is reported about him, sententia Platonis semper in ore illius fuit, florere civitates si aut philosophi imperarent aut imperantes philosopharentur (27.7), "Plato's judgment was always on his lips, that states flourished if philosophers ruled or rulers were philosophers." It is this quality of Marcus' character which has made him a unique figure in Roman history, since he was the first emperor whose life was molded by, and devoted to, philosophy (Julian was the second and last). His reign was long and troubled, and in some ways showed the weaknesses of empire which ultimately led to the "Decline and Fall," yet his personal reputation, indeed his sanctity, have never failed of admirers. Contributing to his fame and reputation is a slender volume of Stoic philosophy which served as a kind of diary while he was involved in military campaigns, the Meditations, a book which can be described as an aureus libellus, a little golden book.

The sources for understanding Marcus and his reign are varied but generally disappointing. There is no major historian. The chief literary sources are the biography in the Historia Augusta, as well as those of Hadrian, Antoninus, Verus, and Avidius Cassius. Debate about this collection of imperial biographies has been heated and contentious for more than a century. In all likelihood, it is the work of a single author writing in the last years of the fourth-century. The information offered ranges from the precisely accurate to the wildly imaginative.

Cassius Dio, who wrote in the decade of the 230s, produced a long history of the empire which has survived, for our period, only in an abbreviated version. Fourth century historians, such as Aurelius Victor and Eutropius, occasionally furnish bits of information. Marcus' teacher, Fronto, a distinguished orator and rhetorician, is extremely useful. Papyri, inscriptions, coins, legal writings, and some of the church writers, such as Tertullian, Eusebius, and Orosius, are very important. Archaeology and art history, with their interpretation of monuments, make the history of Marcus' principate literally visible and offer important clues for understanding the context of his actions..

Early Life

He was born M. Annius Verus on April 26, 121, the scion of a distinguished family of Spanish origin (PIR2 A697). His father was Annius Verus (PIR2 A696), his mother Domitia Lucilla (PIR2 D183). His grandfather held his second consulate in that year and went on to reach a third in 126, a rare distinction in the entire history of the principate, and also served Hadrian as city prefect.[[1]] The youth's education embraced both rhetoric and philosophy; his manner was serious, his intellectual pursuits deep and devoted, so that the emperor Hadrian took an interest in him and called him "Verissimus," "Most truthful," by punning on his name.[[2]] He received public honors from an early age and seems to have long been in Hadrian's mind as a potential successor. When Hadrian's first choice as successor, L. Ceionius Commodus, died before his adoptive father, the second choice proved more fruitful. The distinguished senator T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus, from Cisalpine Gaul, did succeed Hadrian, whose arrangements for the succession planned for the next generation as well. He required Antoninus to adopt the young Verus, now to be known as M. Aelius Aurelius Verus, as well as Commodus' son, henceforth known as L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus (PIR2 C606). The former was a bit more than seventeen years old, the latter was eight.

Career under Antoninus Pius

The long tenure of Antoninus Pius proved one of the most peaceful and prosperous in Roman history. The emperor himself was disinclined to military undertakings and never left Italy during his reign. Disturbances to the pax Romana occurred on the fringes of empire. Responses were decisive and successful, with legates in charge in the provinces. As a consequence, neither Caesar gained military experience nor was shown to the armies, a failing which later could have proved decisive and disastrous. Marcus rose steadily through the cursus honorum, holding consulates in 140 and 145, combining magistracies with priesthoods. He received the tribunicia potestas in 147, and perhaps also imperium proconsulare. Yet he never neglected the artes liberales. His closest contacts were with Fronto (c.95-c.160), the distinguished rhetorician and orator.[[3]] His acquaintance included many other distinguished thinkers, such as Herodes Atticus (c.95-177), the Athenian millionaire and sophist,[[4]] and Aelius Aristides (117-c.181), two of whose great speeches have survived and which reveal much of the mood and beliefs of the age.[[5]] Yet it was Epictetus (c.50-c.120) who had the greatest philosophical impact [[6]] and made him a firm Stoic.[[7]] In the year 161 Marcus celebrated his fortieth birthday, a figure of noble appearance and unblemished character. He was leading a life which gave him as much honor and glory as he could have desired, probably much more than his private nature enjoyed, yet his life, and that of the empire, was soon to change. The emperor died on March 7, but not before clearly indicating to magistrates and senate alike his desire that Marcus succeed him by having the statue of Fortuna, which had been in his bedroom, transferred to Marcus.[[8]] There was no opposition, no contrary voice, to his succession. He immediately chose his brother as co-emperor, as Hadrian had planned. From the beginning of the year they were joint consuls and held office for the entire year. Their official titulature was now Imperator Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus and Imperator Caesar L. Aurelius Verus Augustus. The military qualities adumbrated by the word Imperator were soon much in demand, for the empire was under pressure in the year 161 in Britain, in Raetia, and in the east, where Parthia once again posed a significant danger.[[9]]

The Parthian War (161-166)

The incursion in northern Britain and the difficulties along the Danube were soon satisfactorily managed by legates. The danger in the East was of a different magnitude. Tensions between Rome and Parthia had intensified in the last years of Antoninus' reign over control of Armenia, the vast buffer state which had often aroused enmity between the two powers, since each wished to be able to impose a king favorable to its interests. With Antoninus' death and the uncertainty attendant upon a new emperor (in this case two, a dyarchy, for the first time in Rome's history), the Parthian monarch, Vologaeses III, struck rapidly, placed his own candidate upon the Armenian throne, and inflicted severe setbacks upon the Roman forces sent to oppose him. Marcus decided to send his colleague Lucius Verus, whose imperial prestige would underscore the seriousness of the empire's response. Verus lacked military experience and was sorely lacking in the attributes of leadership and command; further, he was notorious for being chiefly interested in amusements and luxury. But Marcus surrounded him with several of the best generals at the empire's disposal, chief among them Avidius Cassius (c.130-175)(PIR2 A1402). From 162 on, Rome's successes and conquests were extensive and decisive. Most of Parthia's significant cities and strongholds, such as Seleucia and Ctesiphon, were stormed and destroyed, and the army's movements eastward recalled the movements of Alexander the Great some five centuries earlier. By 166, Parthia had capitulated and a Roman nominee sat on the Armenian throne. The victory appeared to be the most decisive since Trajan's conquest of Dacia, but, when Verus returned to Italy with his triumphant army, there came also a devastating plague, which had enormous effect on all provinces.

As is the case with all ancient diseases, it is almost impossible to identify this one. In all likelihood, however, it was smallpox; how severe the toll was is debated.[[10]] Clearly, it cast a pall over the triumph celebrated by the two emperors, who were honored with the titles Armeniacus and Parthicus. The last years of this decade were dominated by efforts to overcome the plague and provide succour to its victims. But already in 166, the German tribes smashed the Danubian limes, threatening the empire's stability and even existence,more than Parthia had ever done. From the north had come a far greater threat to the empire's stability, indeed existence, than that of Parthia had been. The first campaigns were punctuated by the death of Verus in 169, leaving Marcus as sole emperor. And so began the most difficult period of his life.

The German Wars

Early in 169, the Marcomanni and Quadi crossed the Danube, penetrated the intervening provinces, and entered Italy. The culmination of their onslaught was a siege of Aquileia. The effect upon the inhabitants of the peninsula was frightful. This was the first invasion of Italy since the late second century B.C., when the Cimbri and Teutones had been separately crushed by Marius. Perhaps more vivid in the collective imagination was the sack of Rome by the Gauls in 387, when the city was saved only by the payment of ransom.

The two emperors hastened north, after a rapid mobilization of forces, which included the drafting of slaves, since the manpower potential of the empire had been so impaired by the consequences of the plague and the losses and troop commitments in the East. Verus died while in the north;[[11]] Marcus returned to Rome with the body and gave his brother full honors. He then turned north again and began his counterattacks against the barbarians. He did not know it at the time, but he was destined to spend most of his remaining years on the northern frontier. The only interlude was caused by revolt in the east.

We have no record of Marcus' ultimate intentions in these campaigns, yet the various stages were clear. First and foremost, the enemy had to be driven out of Italy and then into their own territory beyond the Danube. He strove to isolate the tribes and then defeat them individually, so that the ultimate manpower superiority of the empire and its greater skill in warfare and logistics could more easily be brought to bear. It was a successful strategy, as one tribe after another suffered defeat and reestablished ties with Rome. But it was a time-consuming and expensive operation, requiring the recruitment of two new legions, II Italica and III Italica, the construction of many new camps, such as the legionary fortress at Regensburg, with success accruing year by year. He intended to create two new provinces, Marcomannia and Sarmatia, thereby eliminating the Hungarian Plain and the headwaters of the Elbe as staging areas for invasion.[[12]]

This steady, slow progress was interrupted in 175 by the action of the distinguished general Avidius Cassius, governor of Syria, who claimed the empire for himself.[[13]] Whether he responded to a rumor of Marcus' death or, as gossip had it, conspired with Marcus' wife, the emperor's response was quick and decisive. Leaving the northern wars, he traveled to the East, but Avidius was killed before Marcus arrived in the region. After spending time settling affairs and showing himself to some of the provinces, with particular attention shown to Athens, where he was initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries, as Hadrian and Verus had been. He returned to Italy and soon answered the call to duty once more on the northern frontier. He took with him as colleague his son Commodus, now merely sixteen years old but already long since marked out as his father's intended successor. The military campaigns proved successful, but in the spring of 180, when Marcus died, at least one more year of warfare was necessary for the attainment of the grand enterprise. Marcus recommended to Commodus continuation of the war, but the new emperor was eager to return to Rome and the ease and luxury of the imperial court and entered into a peace agreement. Never again was Rome to hold the upper hand in its dealings with the Germanic tribes beyond the now reestablished borders of the empire.

Administrative and Religious Policy

Marcus was a conscientious and careful administrator who devoted much attention to judicial matters.[[14]] His appointments to major administrative positions were for the most part admirable. Difficult tasks were put in the charge of the most capable men; he was not afraid of comparison with his subordinates. Social mobility continued as it had been under his predecessors, with men from the provinces advancing into the upper echelons of the Roman aristocracy. Those of humble birth could make a good career; such a one was Pertinax (126-193)[[15]], a gifted general, who in early 193 became emperor for a space of less than three months.

The judicial administration of Italy was put in the hands of iuridici, who represented the emperor and thus spoke with his authority. This was a practice which had been established by Hadrian but had been allowed to lapse by Antoninus. The centralization of government continued apace. The imperial finances were sorely stretched by the almost continuous wars. Trajan had brought great wealth, Decebalus' treasure, into the empire after his conquest of Dacia. No such profit awaited Marcus. When preparing for the northern wars, he auctioned off much of the imperial palace's valuables.[[16]] In spite of the enormous expenses of war, Commodus found ample funds upon his accession as sole emperor for his expenditures and amusements.

Although Marcus was a devoted thinker and philosopher, he was deeply religious, at least outwardly. The state cult received full honor, and he recognized the validity of other people's beliefs, so that the variety of religions in the vast extent of the empire caused no difficulties for inhabitants or government, with one significant exception. The Christians were not hampered by any official policy; indeed the impact of the church spread enormously in the second century. Yet their availability as scapegoats for local crises made them subject to abuse or worse. There was violence against them in 167, and perhaps the worst stain on Marcus' principate stemmed from the pogrom of Christians in Lugdunum in southern France in 177. He did not cause it, nor, on the other hand, did he or his officials move to stop it. Indeed, Tertullian called him a friend of Christianity. Yet the events were a precursor of what would come in the century and a quarter which followed.[[17]]

Building Programs and Monuments

Many of Marcus' predecessors transformed the face of the capital with their building programs, either by the vast range of their undertaking or by the extraordinary significance of individual monuments. Others did very little to leave a tangible mark. Marcus fell into the latter group. There is record of very few monuments for which he and his brother were responsible. Very early in their reign they honored the deceased Antoninus with a column in the Campus Martius, no longer in situ but largely surviving. The shaft, which seems not to have been sculpted, was used for the restoration of Augustus' obelisk, now in Piazza Montecitorio, in the eighteenth century. The base, which was sculpted on all four sides, is now on display in the Vatican Museum. The chief feature is the apotheosis of the emperor and his long deceased wife, the elder Faustina, as they are borne to heaven. Also presented on this relief are two eagles and personifications of the goddess Roma and of the Campus Martius, represented as a young male figure.

There were three arches which commemorated the military achievements of the two emperors. No trace has been found of an early monument to Verus. Two arches later honored Marcus, both of which have disappeared but have left significant sculptural remains. The eight rectangular reliefs preserved on the Arch of Constantine came from one arch. Similarly, the three reliefs displayed in the stairwell of the Conservatori Museum on the Capitoline Hill came from another. One relief has disappeared from the latter monument.

Certainly the best known monument of Marcus' principate is the column, which rises from Piazza Colonna. It is twin to Trajan's column in height and design, although the artistic craftsmanship of the reliefs which envelop the shaft is much inferior. The subject is Marcus' campaigns against the Marcomanni and Sarmati in the years 172-75. The most interesting panel represents the famous rainstorm, when the army, overwhelmed by drought, was suddenly saved by the divine intervention of rain.[[18]] Although begun in the latter part of the decade, the column was not completed until 193, when Septimius Severus had become emperor.

The famous equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which survived the centuries near San Giovanni in Laterano because the rider was identified as Constantine, no longer greets the visitor to the Capitoline, where Michelangelo had placed it in the sixteenth century. It was removed in the 1980s because pollution was destroying it. After careful treatment and restoration, it is now displayed within the museum, with a replica placed in the center of the piazza.

Although outside Rome, mention should be made of the monumental frieze commemorating Lucius Verus' victory over the Parthians in 165. It was an ornament of the city of Ephesus; the extensive sculptural remains are now in the Ephesus Museum in Vienna.


As part of Hadrian's plans for his succession, when Ceionius Commodus was his choice, Marcus was betrothed to the latter's daughter. But when Ceionius died and Antoninus became Hadrian's successor, that arrangement was nullified and Marcus was chosen for the Emperor's daughter, the younger Faustina (PIR2 A716). She had been born in 129, was hence eight years younger than he. They were married in 145; the marriage endured for thirty years. She bore him thirteen children, of whom several died young; the most important were a daughter, Lucilla, and a son Commodus. Lucilla was deployed for political purposes, married first to Lucius Verus in 164, when she was seventeen, and then, after his death, to Claudius Pompeianus Quintianus of Antioch, a much older man who was an important associate of her father (PIR2 C973).[[19]]Commodus became joint-emperor with his father in 177 and three years later ruled alone.

Faustina's reputation suffered much abuse. She was accused of employing poison and of murdering people, as well as being free with her favors with gladiators, sailors, and also men of rank, particularly Avidius Cassius. Yet Marcus trusted her implicitly and defended her vigorously. She accompanied him on several campaigns and was honored with the title mater castrorum. She was with him in camp at Halala in southern Cappadocia in the winter of 175 when she died in an accident. Marcus dedicated a temple to her honor and had the name of the city changed to Faustinopolis. [[20]]

Death and Succession

In early 180, while Marcus and Commodus were fighting in the north, Marcus became ill. Which disease carried him off we do not know, but for some days Marcus took no food or drink, being now eager to die.[[21]] He died on March 17, in the city of Vindobona, although one source reports that it was in Sirmium. His ashes were brought to Rome and placed in Hadrian's mausoleum. Commodus succeeded to all power without opposition, and soon withdrew from the war, thereby stymieing his father's designs and ambitions. It was a change of rulers that proved disastrous for people and empire. Dio called the succession a change from a golden kingdom to one of iron and rust.[[22]]


Gibbon called Marcus "that philosophic monarch,"[[23]] a combination of adjective and noun which sets Marcus apart from all other Roman emperors. His renown has, in subsequent centuries, suffered little, although he was by no means a "perfect" person. He was perhaps too tolerant of other people's failings,[[24]] he himself used opium.[[25]] The abundance of children whom his wife bore him included, alas, a male who was to prove one of Rome's worst rulers. How much better it would have been if Marcus had had no son and had chosen a successor by adoption, so that the line of the five good emperors, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus, could have been extended. It was not to be, and for that Marcus must accept some responsibility.

Yet he was a man of ability and a sense of duty who sacrificed his own delights and interests to the well-being of the state. He was capax imperii, he did his best, and history has been kind to him. As Hamlet said to Horatio, when awaiting the appearance of the ghost of his father,

"He was a man! Take him for all in all, I shall not look upon his like again." (I 2, 187-88)

His memory remains vivid and tactile because of the famous column, the equestrian statue, and his slender volume of thoughts, written in Greek, the Meditations,[[26]] from which I choose two quotations with which to conclude:

"If mind is common to us, then also the reason, whereby we are reasoning beings, is common. If this be so, then also the reason which enjoins what is to be done or left undone is common. If this be so, law also is common; if this be so, we are citizens; if this be so, we are partakers in one constitution; if this be so, the Universe is a kind of Commonwealth." (4.4)

"At dawn of day, when you dislike being called, have this thought ready: 'I am called to man's labour; why then do I make a difficulty if I am going out to do what I was born to do and what I was brought into the world for?'" (5.1; both in Farquharson's translation)


Africa, T.W., "The Opium Addiction of Marcus Aurelius," JHI 22 (1961) 97-102.

____________, "The Philosopher - Marcus Aurelius," in his Rome of the Caesars (New York, 1965) 190-206.

Asmis, E., "The Stoicism of Marcus Aurelius," in ANRW II 36.3 (Berlin/New York, 1989) 2228-52.

Becatti, G., La Colonna di Marco Aurelio (Milan, 1957).

Birley, A., Lives of the Later Caesars: The First Part of the Augustan History with Newly Compiled Lives of Nerva and Trajan (London, 1976).

__________, Marcus Aurelius (London, 19872).

Bowersock, G.W., Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1969)

Brunt, P.A., "M. Aurelius and His Meditations," JRS 64 (1974) 1-20.

___________, "Stoicism and the Principate," PBSR 43 (1975) 7-35.

___________, "Marcus Aurelius and the Christians," in C. Deroux, ed., Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History (Collection Latomus 64; Brussels 1979) 483-520.

Champlin, E., Fronto and Antonine Rome (Cambridge, MA, 1980).

Eck, W., "Marcus Aurelius," in Der Neue Pauly, 7 (1999) cols. 870-75.

________. "Avidius Cassius," in Der Neue Pauly 2 (1997) 370.

Farquharson, A.S.L., trans., The Meditations of Marcus

Aurelius Antoninus, and a Selection from the Letters of Marcus and Fronto, trans. R.B. Rutherford (Oxford, 1989).

Garzetti, A., From Tiberius to the Antonines (translated by J.R Foster, London, 1974).

Gibbon, E., The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 1 (London, 1776).

Gilliam, J.F., "The Plague under Marcus Aurelius," AJP 82 (1961) 225-51.

Grant., M., The Antonines:  The Roman Empire in Transition (London and New York, 1994).

Grimal, P., Marc Aurèle (Paris, 1991).

Halfmann, H., Itinera principum (Stuttgart, 1986).

Hammond,  M. The Antonine Monarchy (Rome, 1959).

Hendrickx, B., "Once again: Marcus Aurelius, Emperor and Philosopher," Historia 23 (1974) 254-56

Keresztes, P., "The Massacre at Lugdunum in 177 A.D.," Historia 16 (1967) 75-86.

_____________, "Marcus Aurelius a Persecutor?," HTR 61 (1968) 321-41.

Klein, R., ed., Marc Aurel (Darmstadt, 1979).

Knauer, E.R., Das Reiterstandbild des Kaisers Marc Aurel (Stuttgart, 1968).

Littman, R.J. and M.L., "Galen and the Antonine Plague," AJP 94 (1973) 243-55

Long, A.A., "Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius," in T.J. Luce, ed., Ancient Writers II (New York, 1982) 985-1002.

Marco Aurelio - Mostra di Cantiere (Rome 1984).

Millar, F., A Study of Cassius Dio (Oxford, 1964).

__________, The Emperor in the Roman World (Ithaca, NY, 1977).

Nash, E., Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Rome, two volumes, (London, 1961-62).

Oliver, J.H. and R.E.A. Palmer, "Minutes of an Act of the Roman Senate," Hesperia 24 (1955) 320-49.

Oliver, J.H., Marcus Aurelius. Aspects of Civic and Cultural Policy in the East (American School of Classical Studies, Princeton: Hesperia Supplement XIII, 1970).

Perowne, S., Caesars and Saints (London 1962.)

___________, The Caesars' Wives - above suspicion? (London, 1974).

Raepsaet-Charlier, M.-T., Prosopographie des Femmes de l'Ordre Sénatorial (Ier-IIe siècles) (Louvain, 1987).

Rosen, K., "Sanctus Marcus Aurelius," in Historiae Augustae Colloquium Argentoratense (Bari, 1998) 285-96.

Rutherford, R.B., The Meditations of M. Aurelius: A Study (Oxford, 1989).

Ryberg, I.S., Panel Reliefs of Marcus Aurelius (New York, 1967).

de Serviez, J.R., tr. B. Molesworth, The Roman Empresses (London, 1752; New York 1913) II 47-91.

Stanton, G.R., "Marcus Aurelius, Emperor and Philosopher," Historia 18 (1969) 570-87.

_____________, "Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus: 1962-1972," in ANRW II 2 (Berlin/New York, 1975) 478-549.

Steinby, E.M., Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae, six vols., (Rome, 1993-2000).

Syme, R. "Avidius Cassius: His Rank, Age, and Quality," in Roman Papers V (Oxford, 1988) 689-701

Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984).

Vogel, L., The Column of Antoninus Pius (Cambridge, MA, 1973).

Weber, W., "The Antonines," in CAH XI (Cambridge, 1936) 325-92 (a new edition of this volume is expected shortly).


[[1]] HA Marcus 1.

[[2]] HA Marcus 1.10; Dio 69.21.2.

[[3]] See Champlin.

[[4]] See H.C. Rutledge, "Herodes the Great: Citizen of the World," CJ 56 (1960-61) 97-109; W. Ameling, Herodes Atticus (Hildesheim, 1983).

[[5]] See J.H. Oliver, The Ruling Power (Philadelphia, 1953), and The Civilizing Power (Philadelphia, 1968).

[[6]] Epictetus, a former slave, died before Marcus was born. Marcus borrowed a copy of Epictetus' works, as they had been recorded by Arrian, from his teacher Rusticus (Meditations 1.7).

[[7]] See Long, 987: "the Stoics taught that nothing is of ultimate value to a man except his moral integrity."

[[8]] HA Marcus 7.3.

[[9]] HA Marcus 8.6-7.

[[10]] See Littman and Littman for smallpox. Mortality estimates vary widely; Gilliam claims 1-2%, the Littmans 7-10%. The latter state that the plague was not a decisive event in Roman history (255).

[[11]] Dio 71.3.1 reports that he was poisoned after having been discovered to have plotted against Marcus; HA Marcus 15.5-6.
[[12]] HA Marcus 24.5, 27.10.

[[13]] Dio 71.22.2ff; Avidius Cassius was suffect consul about 166 and became governor of Syria in the same year.  In 172 he was given an imperium over all the eastern provinces.  See R. Syme, "Avidius Cassius: His Rank, Age, and Quality," in Roman Papers V (Oxford, 1988) 689-701 and W. Eck, "Avidius Cassius," in Der Neue Pauly 2 (1997) 370.

[[14]] Dio 71.6.1.

[[15]] Dio 71.22.1.

[[16]] HA Marcus 17.4-5.

[[17]] See Oliver and Palmer, Keresztes, Hendrickx.

[[18]] Dio 71.8-10; HA Marcus 24.4; Aurelius Victor 16; Orosius, Adversus Paganos 7.15.8-9, among many.

[[19]] He is called grandaevus (HA Marcus 20.6).

[[20]] Dio 71.10.5; HA Marcus 26.8-9.

[[21]] Dio 71.21.1 reports that Commodus had physicians end his father's life.

[[22]] Dio 71.36.4. The comment of the author of the HA is intriguing (Marcus 18.4), qui (Marcus), si felix fuisset, filium non reliquisset.

[[23]] Page 8 in the Modern Library edition (n.d.).

[[24]] Dio 71.26.2-4, 30.3-4.

[[25]] See Africa, "Opium."

[[26]] See Long, 996: "In origin the Meditations appear to be thoughts and memoranda that the emperor wrote in his own hand for his self-improvement and guidance."

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

Comments to: Herbert W. Benario.

Updated: 30 January 2001

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