Loyola University Chicago

Center for Research on Self-Sufficiency (CROSS)

School of Social Work


Hodge, D., Hong, P.Y.P., & Choi, S. (In Press). Spirituality, employment hope, and grit: modeling the relationship among underemployed urban African Americans.  Social Work Research.

Hong, P.Y.P., Choi, S., & Key, W. (2018). Psychological self-sufficiency: A core theory of change in workforce development.  Social Work Research, 41.

Hong, P.Y.P. & Choi, S. (2017). Measuring transformative workforce activation: Validation of the Comprehensive Employment Hope Scale (EHS-21). In Tan, N.T., (Ed.), Transforming society: Strategies for social development in Singapore and around the world. (pp. 81-96). New York: Routledge.

Choi, S., Hong, P.Y.P., & Kim, H. (2017). Development and evaluation of Psychological Self-Sufficiency Program in Korea: A demonstration Project at the Gyonggi Regional Centers. Journal of Korean Social Welfare Administration, 19, 179-199 [In Korean].

Hong, P. Y. P. (2016). Transforming Impossible into Possible (TIP): A bottom-up practice in workforce development for low-income jobseekers. Environment and Social Psychology, 1, 93-104. 

Hong, P.Y.P., Song, I., Choi, S., & Park, J.H. (2016). A cross-national validation of the Employment Hope Scale in the U.S. and South Korea. Social Work Research, 40, 41-51.

Hong, P.Y.P., Song, I., Choi, S., & Park, J.H. (In Press). A cross-national validation of the Perceived Employment Barrier Scale (PEBS). International Social Work.

Hong, P. Y. P., Stokar, H. & Choi, S. (2016). Psychological and economic self-sufficiency among low-income jobseekers with physical disability barriers. Environment and Social Psychology, 1, 63–73. 

Hong, P.Y.P., Hodge, D., & Choi, S. (2015). Spirituality, hope, and self-sufficiency among low-income job seekers. Social Work, 60,155-164.

Hong, P.Y.P. (2014).  Employment hope: A path to empowering disconnected workers.  In E.J. Clark & E.F. Hoffler (Eds.), Hope matters: The power of social work (pp.143-148). Washington, D.C.: NASW Press.

Hong, P.Y.P., Polanin, J.R., Key, W., & Choi, S. (2014). Development of the Perceived Employment Barrier Scale (PEBS): Measuring psychological self-sufficiency. Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 689-706.

Hong, P.Y.P., Lewis, D., & Choi, S. (2014). Employment hope as an empowerment pathway to self-sufficiency among ex-offenders. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 53317-333.

Hong, P.Y.P., Choi, S., Polanin, J.R. (2014). A multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis of the Short Employment Hope Scale (EHS-14).  Journal of Social Service Research, 40, 339-352.

Hong, P.Y.P. (2013). Toward a client-centered benchmark for self-sufficiency: Evaluating the ‘process’ of becoming job ready. Journal of Community Practice, 21, 356–378 [ecommons].

Hong, P.Y.P. & Choi, S. (2013). The employment hope scale: Measuring an empowerment pathway to employment success. International Journal of Psychology Research, 8173-189.  [ecommons].

Hong, P.Y.P., Polanin, J.R., & Pigott, T.D. (2012). Validation of the employment hope scale: Measuring psychological self-sufficiency among low-income jobseekers. Research on Social Work Practice, 22, 323-332 [ecommons] [Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse].

Harvey, V., Hong, P.Y.P., & Kwaza, K. (2010). Shared reflections: The challenges of client empowerment in workforce development. Reflections: Narratives of Professional Helping, 16, 70-78.

Hong, P.Y.P., Sheriff, A., & Naeger, S. (2009). A bottom-up definition of self-sufficiency: Voices from low-income jobseekers. Qualitative Social Work, 8357-376 [ecommons].