School of Education's Policy
In general, a violation of academic integrity occurs when the nature or source of academic work is misrepresented. This occurs in incidents such as, but not limited to, claiming work as one's own when it is not (e.g., plagiarism and cheating on tests) and/or falsifying data.
Cheating (fn 1)
The possession, receipt, use or solicitation of unauthorized materials, information, notes, study aids or other devices in any academic exercise. This definition includes unauthorized communication of information before, during and after an academic exercise.
Scope - all encompassing. Examples: This includes, but is not limited to, the following:
- Copying from another student's paper or test or receiving any unauthorized assistance on any assignment or exam.
- Possessing, buying, selling, removing, receiving or using at any time or in any manner not previously authorized by the instructor a partial or complete copy of any exam or other materials intended to be used as an instrument of evaluation in advance of their administration.
- Using any material or equipment (including a personal computer, cell phone, or other electronic devices) not authorized by the instructor during a test or other academic evaluation.
- Attempting to influence or change an academic evaluation, grade or record by deceit or unfair means, such as (1) damaging the work of another student to gain an unfair advantage (2) marking or submitting an exam or other assignment in an attempt to deceive the grading system.
- Submitting, without prior permission, the same academic work which has been submitted in identical or similar form in another class in fulfillment of any other academic requirement at the university. Materials resubmitted for the purposes of completing a course or program-level learning portfolio or project are allowed.
- Permitting another person to substitute for one's self for any type of academic evaluation. This includes allowing another person to substitute for one’s self in submitting or evaluating any work, assignments or resources pertaining to online courses, the use of Blackboard, Live Text or any online learning tools.
- Obtaining an unfair advantage by gaining access to, reproducing or circulating examination materials or course materials prior to the time authorized by the instructor or retaining, using or circulating previously given examination materials is considered to be an unfair advantage. Stealing, destroying, defacing or concealing library materials in order to deprive others of their use or intentionally obstructing or interfering with another student's academic work is also an unfair advantage.
- Collaborating with other students on projects, processes and/or papers where such collaboration has been forbidden by the instructor.
Plagiarism (fn 2)
Plagiarism occurs in written work and in oral/visual presentations in which the writer presents materials as his/her own that have originated with someone else. These materials include information, data, ideas, conclusions, words, sentence structures, images, movies, sounds, and music. Neglecting to include quotation marks or accurate documentation with these materials is plagiarism as surely as knowingly copying another person’s writing and submitting it as one’s own.
This definition applies to all types of sources, including print sources, sources from electronic databases, from the Internet, and from other media.
There are two broad categories of plagiarism:
First, plagiarism of ideas occurs when the writer presents the ideas of others as his/her own. Information, data, interpretations, and conclusions that come from a specific source must be attributed to the source even if the original language is not used. Plagiarism of ideas can easily be avoided by including documentation of the original source. The writer should use the citation style that is appropriate to the discipline in which he/she is writing or as required by the course instructor.
Second, plagiarism of language occurs when the writer lifts sentences or substantive words from the source in any medium (e.g., web, print, audio). Writers must use quotation marks or block quotations to indicate that the words in the essay are exactly the same as those in the original text, and writers must provide a citation that correctly identifies the source. It is important that the writer fulfill his/her responsibility to the original source by being precise and accurate when quoting. Plagiarism of language can be avoided either by correctly identifying a quotation or by rewording so that the language of the original is replaced with language that is the writer’s own. Plagiarism of language can be further subdivided:
- Plagiarism of words occurs when the writer copies three or more consecutive content words (not function words, such as the, and, or is) from the original source without any quotation marks and/or formal citation. Plagiarism of words in a paraphrase can be avoided by summarizing the original text and by substituting synonyms.
- Plagiarism of sentence structure occurs when the writer substitutes synonyms for words in the original text but repeats the same sentence structure as used in the original document. Plagiarism of sentence structure in a paraphrase can be avoided by changing the grammatical structures of the original text’s sentences.
Fabrication (fn 3)
Fabrication includes ”falsifying or inventing any information, data or citation.”3 Data that were collected or analyzed in a negligent way, as well as results that have been improperly adjusted or conflicting data that have been omitted for deceptive purposes, are also considered to be fabricated.
Falsification of Records and Official Documents (fn 4)
Altering documents that affect academic records, forging signatures of authorization or falsifying information on an official academic document, grade report, letter of permission, petition, drop/add form, ID card, or any other official University document all constitute falsification of records and official documents.
Violations of Academic Integrity in Research (fn 5)
Three categories are of special interest here:
- Falsification in Research involves the intentional misrepresentation of research findings, description of methods, and/or misleading statements regarding research progress (e.g., how, where, and when data were collected and analyzed) to a faculty advisor or research sponsor.
- Deliberate Violation of Regulations. At Loyola University Chicago, all research involving human subjects and animal subjects requires approval from the Institutional Review Board. Students who conduct research without IRB approval are in direct violation of the university’s regulations.
- Abuse of Confidentiality. Releasing information, data or the ideas of others that were shared with the expectation that the information would be kept confidential is an abuse of confidentiality. For example, the failure to protect the identities of participants (and their organizations) during the process of conducting and reporting research is a violation of confidentiality.
Procedures for Adjudicating Violations of Academic Integrity
Violations of academic integrity as described in this statement may result in one or more actions including: a) faculty request that student revise and resubmit an assignment; b) faculty submission of a grade of "F" for an assignment; c) faculty submission of a grade of "F" for the course; and/or d) faculty recommendation that student be suspended or dismissed from the academic program. Should a student elect to dispute the faculty member's action or recommendation, s/he should follow the School of Education’s standard grievance procedures (see Grievance Procedure: Ed.D., Ed.S. & M.Ed. (select Academic Grievance Procedures from the menu); Ph.D. & M.A.; Undergraduate).
Approved by the School of Education Academic Council,
January 15, 2010.
1 For the most part, this entire section (with minor modification) was taken from the Elon University 2009-2010 student handbook. [Retrieved January 6, 2010 from http://www.elon.edu/e-web/students/handbook/violations/cheating.xhtml]. Note: language pertaining to authentic usage for online courses and online learning/academic resources was added by Loyola University Chicago.
2 For the most part, this entire section is quoted directly from Lynchburg College. (n.d.). Statement on plagiarism. [Retrieved January 6, 2010]
3 Northwestern University. (1992). University principles and safeguards. [Retrieved January 6, 2010 from http://www.northwestern.edu/uacc/uniprin.html].
4 This entire section is quoted directly from Northwestern University. (1992). University principles and safeguards. [Retrieved January 6, 2010 from http://www.northwestern.edu/uacc/uniprin.html].
5 The concepts discussed in these sections were informed by Integrity in scholarship: Resources on academic misconduct for graduate students at the University of Michigan Rackham graduate school of education. (n.d.) [Retrieved January 6, 2010 from http://www.rackham.umich.edu/downloads/publications/AcademicIntegrity.pdf].