“Hate on the Ballot: Election 2020 and the Quest for a Diverse and Inclusive Democracy,” Harvard Latinx Law Review, Vol. 23 (2020)

This article summarizes empirical evidence showing that no president in modern American history has inspired more hatred and division than Donald Trump. Since his campaign in 2016, political hate speech has empowered hate crimes and allowed foreign adversaries to exploit our weaknesses. The article seeks to articulate legal limits on political hate speech that undermines the general welfare and threatens national defense. Ramirez argues that impeachment can set a precedent; that the court should impound national security concerns in speech regulation; and that the law must take a lead role in undoing the festering American racial hierarchy.