Bibliography for Studies on Ignatian Spirituality

What follows is a critical bibliography on materials that may be helpful in the study of Ignatian Spirituality. This bibliography was prepared by Philip Sheldrake, SJ, and presented in his work, The Way of Ignatius Loyola: Contemporary Approaches to The Spiritual Exercises (The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1991), a collection of essays taken from The Way, a journal on Ignatian spirituality. The Way of Ignatius Loyola is directed toward those desiring to learn about the present state of Ignatian spirituality.

Written by some of the world's leading Ignatian experts, the book provides a helpful introduction to the main elements of the text and a practical commentary on the dynamicsof the Exercises. It also includes stimulating reflections on important features of Ignatian prayer and discernment, on spiritual guidance in theIgnatian tradition, and on the historical background and context.

The bibliography is divided into the following manner:

  1. Texts by Ignatius of Loyola
    a. Autobiography
    b. The Spiritual Exercises
  2. Ignatius of Loyola
  3. Ignatian Spirituality: General
  4. TheSpiritual Exercises: General Studies
  5. Presenting the Spiritual Exercises
  6. The Spiritual Exercises: Specific Elements
    a. Overall dynamic
    b. Principle and Foundation
    c. First Week
    d. The Kingdom
    e. Second Week
    f. The Two Standards
    g. Third and Fourth Weeks
    h. The Contemplatio
    i. Prayer in the Exercises
    j. Discernment, Election and Choice
    k. Spiritual Direction and the Exercises

TEXTS BY IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA

Autobiography

Among more recent English versions are:
William Yeomans (trans.), Inigo: original testament (London, Inigo Enterprises, 1985).
William J. Young (trans.), St Ignatius' Own Story (Chicago, Loyola University Press, 1980 edition).

The Spiritual Exercises

The most commonly used text in English is that edited by Louis J. Puhl (Chicago, Loyola University Press, 1950).

A modern non-literal interpretation of the text is David L. Fleming, The Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius: a literal translation a contemporary reading (St Louis, Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1979).

See also George E. Ganss, ed., Ignatius of Loyola: The Spiritual Exercises and Selected Works, Classics of Western Spirituality series (New York, Paulist Press, 1991).


IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA

Recent accounts of his life include:
Philip Caraman, Ignatius of Loyola (London, Collins, 1990).
Candido de Dalmases, Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Jesuits, his life and work (ET. St Louis, Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1985).

A brief but useful essay is that by Imhof in:
Karl Rahner and Paul Imhof, Ignatius of Loyola (ET. London, Collins, 1979).

A more specific perspective is provided by:
Andr‚ Ravier, Ignatius of Loyola and the Founding of the Society of Jesus (ET. San Francisco, Ignatius Press, 1987).


IGNATIAN SPIRITUALITY: GENERAL

The best general introduction to Ignatian spirituality is recently published:
David Lonsdale, Eyes to See, Ears to Hear: an introduction to Ignatian spirituality (London, Darton, Longman & Todd, 1990).

A useful account of Ignatian prayer is provided by: Margaret Hebblethwaite, Finding God in All Things (London, Collins, 1987).

A classic and detailed, though dated, account is:
Joseph de Guibert, The Jesuits: their spiritual doctrine and practice (ET. St Louis, Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1972).

Two provocative essays on contemporary historical and theological problems of interpretation are:
Philip Endean, "Who do you say Ignatius is? Jesuit fundamentalism and beyond", Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 19, 5 (November 1987).
Roger Haight, "Foundational issues in Jesuit spirituality", Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 19, 4 (September 1987).


THE SPIRITUAL EXERCISES: GENERAL STUDIES

A classic but controversial study is:
William A.M. Peters, The Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius: exposition and interpretation (Rome, Centrum Ignatianum Spiritualitatis, 1978 edition).

A critical study from the perspective of liberation theology is:
Juan Luis Segundo, The Christ of the Ignatian Exercises (ET. London, Sheed & Ward, 1988).

Gilles Cusson, Biblical Theology and the Spiritual Exercises, translated by Mary Angela Roduit and George E. Ganss (St Louis, Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1988). This is an authorized translation of Cusson's Pédagogie de l'expérience spirituelle personelle: Bible et Exercises Spirituels.

Other recent short studies and essays include:
Brian McDermott, "With him, in him: the graces of the Spiritual Exercises", Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 19, 4 (September 1986).
John Padberg, "Personal experience and the Spiritual Exercises: the example of St Ignatius", Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 10, 5 (November 1978).
Peter Schinneller, "The approaches to Christology and their use in the Spiritual Exercises", Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 12, 4-5 (September/November 1980).
John Sobrino, The Christ of the Ignatian Exercises, Appendix in Christology at the Crossroads (ET.London, SCM, 1978).

Although dated, a useful bibliography of works in English prior to 1981 is:
Paul Begheyn, "A bibliography of St Ignatius' Spiritual Exercises", Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 13, 2 (March 1981). This bibliography is updated to 1991 by Paul Begheyn and Kenneth Bogart in Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 23, 3 (May 1991).


PRESENTING THE SPIRITUAL EXERCISES

Three of the best-known general aids for retreat directors are:
Marian Cowan and John Futrell, The Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius of Loyola: a handbook for direction (Denver, Ministry Training Services, 1981).
John English, Spiritual Freedom (Guelph, Loyola House, 1982).
David L. Fleming (ed.), Notes on the Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius of Loyola (St Louis, Review for Religious, 1981).

On presenting the 'Exercises in daily life' see:
Maurice Giuliani, "The Exercises in Daily Life", English edition of Progressio, Supplement 18-19, November 1981 (Christian Life Communities, Rome).
John Veltri, Orientations, volumes 1 & 2 (Guelph, Loyola House, 1979 & 1981).
Joseph Tetlow, Choosing Christ in the World (St Louis, Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1989).
Gilles Cusson, The Spiritual Exercises Made in Everyday Life: A Method and a Biblical Interpretation, translated by Mary Angela Roduit and George E. Ganns (St Louis, Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1989). This is an authorized translation of Cusson's Conduis-mois sur le chemin d'éternité.

Also essays in:
"The Spiritual Exercises in daily life", The Way Supplement 49 (Spring 1984).


THE SPIRITUAL EXERCISES: SPECIFIC ELEMENTS

See the essays in Fleming, Notes, above. What follows is a selection of useful sources to complement the present volume:

Overall dynamic

Alexander Lefrank, "The Spiritual Exercises as a way of liberation: the social dimension" in The Way Supplement 46 (Spring 1983).
Joseph Veale, 'The Dynamic of the Exercises' in The Way Supplement 52 (Spring 1985).

Principle and Foundation

Andrew Hamilton, 'The right use of creatures' in The Way 26, 3 (July 1986).
Philip Sheldrake, 'The Principle and Foundation and images of God' in The Way Supplement 48 (Autumn 1983).
Joseph Tetlow, 'The fundamentum: creation in the Principle and Foundation', Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 21, 4 (September 1989).

First Week

Other essays in 'Presenting the First Week', The Way Supplement 48 (Autumn 1983).
And:
Joseph Hitter, 'The First Week and the love of God' in The Way Supplement 34 (Autumn 1978).
Gerard W. Hughes, 'The First Week and the formation of conscience' in The Way Supplement 24 (Spring 1975).
Seamus Murphy, 'The mission to justice and giving the Exercises' in The Way Supplement 55 (Spring 1986).

The Kingdom

Robert L. Schmitt, 'The Christ-experience and relationship fostered in the Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius of Loyola', Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 6, 5 (October 1974).
Robert L. Schmitt, 'Presenting the Call of the King' in The Way Supplement 52 (Spring 1985).

Second Week

Other essays in 'Aspects of the Second Week', in The Way Supplement 52 (Spring 1985).

The Two Standards

Dean Brackley, 'Downward mobility: social implications of St Ignatius' Two Standards', Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 20, 1 (January 1988).
Dermot Mansfield, 'Presenting the Two Standards' in The Way Supplement 55 (Spring 1986).
James McPolin, 'The Two Standards in Scripture' in The Way Supplement 55 (Spring 1986).
Aloysius Pieris, 'To be poor as Jesus was poor?' in The Way 24, 3 (July 1984).

Third and Fourth Weeks

Other essays in 'The Spiritual Exercises: Weeks Three and Four' The Way Supplement 58 (Spring 1987).
And:
Peter Fennessey, 'The Third Week of the Exercises' in The Way Supplement 34 (Autumn 1978).
Brian McNamara, 'Prayer in Gethsemane' in The Way Supplement 27 (Spring 1976).

The Contemplatio

Michael Buckley, 'The Contemplation to Attain Love' in The Way Supplement 24 (Spring 1975).
Olga Warnke, 'The Contemplation to Attain Love' in The Way Supplement 58( Spring 1987).

Prayer in the Exercises

Essays in 'Prayer in the Spiritual Exercises', The Way Supplement 27 (Spring 1976).
And:
George Aschenbrenner, 'Becoming whom we contemplate' in The Way Supplement 52 (Spring 1985).
George Aschenbrenner, 'Consciousness Examen' in Review for Religious 31 (1972), pp. 14-21.
John Ashton, 'The Imitation of Christ' in The Way Supplement 16 (Summer 1972).
Philip Sheldrake, Imagination and Prayer, Ch. 8 in Images of Holiness (Darton, Longman and Tood, London/Ave Maria, Notre Dame, 1987).
David Townsend, 'The Examen and the Exercises: a reappraisal' in The Way Supplement 52 (Spring 1985).

Discernment, Election and Choice

The most comprehensive contemporary study is:
Jules J. Toner, A commentary on St Ignatius' Rules for the Discernment of Spirits (St. Louis, Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1981).
Toner's latest work on the subject of discernment is Discerning God's Will: Ignatius of Loyola's Teaching on Christian Decision Making (St. Louis, Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1991).

A recent attempt to reassess the origins of the Rules for Discernment is:
Philip Endean, 'Discerning behind the Rules: Ignatius' first letter to Teresa Rejadell' in The Way Supplement 64 (Spring 1989).

A readable introduction is:
Thomas Green, Weeds among the Wheat (Notre Dame, Ave Maria, 1983).

Other useful essays include:
Lavinia Byrne, 'Asking for the grace' in The Way Supplement 64 (Spring 1989).
Nicholas King, 'Ignatius Loyola and decision-making' in The Way Supplement 24 (Spring 1975).
Michael Kyne, 'Discernment of spirits and Christian growth' in The Way Supplement 6 (May 1968).
Laurence Murphy, 'Psychological problems of Christian choice' in The Way Supplement 24 (Spring 1975).
Michael O'Sullivan, 'Trust your feelings but use your head: Discernment and the psychology of decision making', Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 22, 4 (September 1990).

Spiritual Direction and the Exercises

Paul Begheyn, 'Soul friend: the director in the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola' in The Way 29, 2 (April 1989).
Philip Sheldrake, St Ignatius Loyola and spiritual direction in Lavinia Byrne (ed.), Traditions of Spiritual Guidance (London, Geoffrey Chapman, 1990).
David Townsend, 'The counsellor, the director and the Annotations' in The Way Supplement 42 (Autumn 1981).


Source for this bibliography:

Philip Sheldrake (ed.), The Way of Ignatius Loyola: Contemporary Approaches to The Spiritual Exercises (St. Louis, Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1991).
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