Loyola University Chicago

John Felice Rome Center

HIST 335 19th & 20th Century Italy Fall 2012

Fall 2012

History 335

Wed 10:00-12:30                                    Instructor: Anne Wingenter

                                                                e-mail: awingen@luc.edu    

                                                                                    phone: 0635403095

                                                                                    office: Wed 12:30-2:00 or by appt.

Italy in the 19th and 20th Centuries – Writing Intensive

This course will introduce students to the major political, cultural and social trends in Italy since the defeat of Napoleon. Within this broad overview three historical “problems” will be examined in depth. These are: 1) the place of the Risorgimento in Italian unification; 2) the rise and fall of Italian Fascism; and 3) the immigration waves of the past 3 decades and their impact on Italian identity. By analyzing these problems students should gain a command not only of the "names and dates" of modern Italian history but also come to understand the dynamics involved: the interplay of regional influences, the basic trends of continuity and change, and the role of the individual and of social forces.


Required Texts:

   1. Christopher Duggan, The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy Since 1796.

   2. Carlo Levi, Christ Stopped at Eboli. (any edition)


Expected Learning Outcomes:


History as a discipline consists of analysis and expository writing. Consequently, the “writing intensive” aspect of this course is designed both to improve your general writing skills and to develop your ability to “do” history. Through engagement with controversial subjects and conflicting interpretations across primary sources and secondary texts, you will further develop your abilities to read and write critically and to recognize and question the political implications of history writing.



You will learn to define some perhaps familiar political terms (for example, Liberalism, Republicanism, Fascism, Socialism, Communism, Christian Democracy) in the context of Italian politics. By the end of the course you will have obtained a broad overview of modern Italian history and be able to place related ideas, individuals and institutions in their proper context.


Academic Integrity

Work turned in in this class is to be your own. Plagiarism is, as is stated in Loyola’s rules, grounds for failure of the assignment and possibly the class. If you have doubts about the proper use/citation of sources, there are several manuals of style available in the library. If doubts persist, consult me before turning in the assignment in question.


Note: You are strongly encouraged to take advantage of the vast “primary source” where you currently live. Although limited class time makes organized field trips difficult, this syllabus lists a number of sights in Rome that correspond to the periods covered in the course.



1. Class Participation and question formulation- 10%

You are responsible for each week's readings and should come to class with specific questions and comments in mind. Students will be asked at the beginning of the semester to volunteer to lead class discussion for each week, but our conversation will depend on the participation of all of the members of the class. By Wednesday of each week, you must compose and post to the discussion board a question or comment based on the primary readings for the week. I reserve the right to require written summaries of the readings should it become apparent that students are not keeping up with them. Lectures in this class deal with specific events, institutions and individuals and the historical debates surrounding them, the readings provide the context for these debates and the general narrative of Italian history.


2. Mid-Term Exam – 20%

The mid-term will include a map test and a choice of identification questions drawn from the first part of the course.


3. Writing project – 50%

You are required to complete a research paper of approximately 10-12 pages in length. This assignment is to be completed in stages, each of which will account for a portion of your grade. Guidelines for this assignment and a break down of grading are provided at the end of the syllabus.


4. Final Exam – 20%

The final will include a document analysis and some short identification questions. These will be drawn from the material covered since the mid-term.


A note about attendance:

Attendance policy in this class follows the official Rome Center rules: “In order for a student to be excused from class, he/she must present to the professor of each of his/her classes a written note of excuse.  The only authorized notes are those from a Doctor, the Director, the vice director, the assistant Director, or the Associate Dean of Students.” A doctor’s or nurse’s note is necessary for excused absences due to illness. Travel is NOT considered a valid excuse for missing classes or turning in late assignments.



Schedule of Classes


Reading:  Duggan pp. xv-298 Christ Stopped at Eboli by Week 9



Week 1 (): General overview and French Revolution

Reading: Excerpts from: Lucy Riall, “The Risorgimento and Italian History” and Vittorio Alfieri, Il Misogallo;


Week 2: () Restoration and Failed Revolutions

Reading: Excerpts from: Stendahl; Mazzini; Gioberti

Question/Proposal for writing project due this week.


Week 3: () Unification

Reading:  “The Plombières Agreement;.” Excerpts from Garibaldi and Cavour



Week 4: () Class Cancelled due to papal Audience


Working annotated bibliography of writing project due by Wednesday.


Week 5: () Liberal Italy

Reading: Vittorio Emanuele II. Denis Mack Smith “Regionalism.”Excerpts from: Sorel and  Corradini


Week 6: () Midterm exam on Wednesday,

Related sights in Rome: Museo Napoleonico, Museo del Risorgimento, Ponte Milvio, Gianicolo, Piazza Cavour and the Palazzo di Giustizia, Ministero delle Finanze, Piazza del Parlamento, Il Quirinale, Ponte Garibaldi

Areas of Rome developed during the above period: Via Nazionale,Corso Vittorio Emmanuele, Via del Tritone, Testaccio, SanLorenzo, San Giovanni (outside the walls), Santa Croce



Reading: Duggan pp. 323-506 Christ Stopped at Eboli by week 9


Week 7 () War and the Crisis of the Liberal State

Reading: Excerpts from: Le Bon; Sorel, Marinetti;

Sentence outline with thesis of writing project due in class on the 29th.


Fall Break Oct 19-28


Week 8: () The Rise of Italian Fascism

Reading: Paul Corner article and documents on Fascism



Related sights in Rome: Il Vittoriano

Areas of Rome developed during the above period: San Saba, Le Case Popolare di Testaccio, Piazza Re di Roma, Prati


Week 9: () Consolidation of Power

Reading: Excerpts from: Benito Mussolini and The Lateran Pacts

Rough draft of writing project due by the. 


Week 10: () Fascist Regime – Theory and practice

Reading: Excerpts from: “The Doctrine of Fascism” and Emil Ludwig Talks with Mussolini


Week 11: () WWII and the Fall of Fascism

Reading: OSS declassified documents from the Italian Campaign; and Sacmed documents on Partisan activity in Italy.


Related sights in Rome: Palazzo Venezia, Piazza Augusto Imperatore, Il Foro Italico (Stadio Olimpico), Le Fosse Ardeatine

Areas of Rome developed during the above period: Monte Sacro, Garbatella, EUR, Piazza Mazzini


PART THREE: Immigration and Identity

Duggan: 529-587


Week 12: () The Italian Republic

Reading: “Italy Stands in Front of the Iron Curtain.”

Final draft of writing project due in class on the .


Week 13: ()Immigration and Nationalism

Reading: on blackboard


Week 14: ()Immigration and Nationalism (continued) and Course Conclusions


Reading: “Why are Mosques a problem?”




Related Sights: Monument to Aldo Moro (in Via Caetani)

Areas of Rome developed during the above period: Monte Mario, Monteverde (Vecchio e Nuovo), Vigna Clara



Writing Project

Your research paper accounts for fully one half of your grade in this class. It is to be completed in the following stages:


Sep :       Question/Proposal (5 points): The first stage of history writing is the formulation of a question to direct your inquiry. In the first weeks of the semester, you should be thinking about what aspect of Modern Italy you wish to explore and checking to see what information is available to you. On the 25th you must turn in a working question and a proposed approach to the research. The proposal should address how you plan to approach the question. It must include what types of materials you plan to consult. This is a working proposal – which means that as you research your topic, both the question and the approach are likely to undergo modifications according to the requirements/peculiarities of the topic.


Sep:        Annotated Bibliography (10 points): This is a bibliography of sources you are gathering for your paper. You may end up citing only some of them in your actual paper, but all works consulted (even those you decide not to use) belong in your bibliography. You must provide at least 6 annotations. An annotation is a brief summary of a work placed beneath its bibliographic information. For the purposes of a research paper, this summary should focus on those parts of the work that are relevant to the topic. Your bibliography may conform to any of the standard styles. (ie. Turabian, MLA, etc. – available in the library) but must be consistent throughout.




Oct:         Sentence Outline with Thesis Statement (10 points): At this point you must transform your question into a thesis statement and organize your research into a full-sentence outline. See “Assignments” for guidelines on writing a sentence outline. Remember: the more detailed the outline, the more help I can give you with the direction of your paper. It is at this stage that you should be answering the following questions: What information have you found to support your thesis? What is still missing? Will you organize your paper chronologically or topically? What information will you include in each subsection? Note: an outline does not include the introduction and conclusion.


Nov:       Rough Draft: There is no separate point value for your rough draft, but it is, of course, in your interest to turn one in. It is at this point that I can make suggestions to help you improve the content or structure of your argument if necessary. It is also an opportunity to have the paper proofread by “fresh” eyes (although you are encouraged to help one another with proofreading as well). As this is a writing intensive class, the grade for your research paper will derive from both content and writing style. In short: grammar, spelling, punctuation, syntax and vocabulary all count. After examining your draft, I will assign an “as is” grade which will later be replaced with your grade on the final version of your paper.


Nov:       Final Paper (25 points): The final version of your paper should include a title page, citations and bibliography. It must be turned in on Wednesday, April 4. Late papers will be penalized at a rate of .5 point (out of the 25 available) per day starting at the beginning of class on April 4.