Loyola University Chicago

John Felice Rome Center

Phil 130 Philosophy & Persons

Fall 2014


Philosophy and Persons

PHIL 130


John Felice Rome Center

Susi Ferrarello, Ph.D


Fall 2014



Office hours: Monday 10:00 or by appointment (via email, Sakai, Skype)

Classes: Monday/Wednesday 11:00-12.15 p.m.


Outline of Sections:


1)      Course Description

2)      Learning Objectives (knowledge and skills)

3)      Evaluation

4)      Materials

5)      Grading

6)      Course Outline

7)      Reading Schedule

8)      Essays/Role Plays


Course Description:


The course examines the way philosophy looks for fundamental characteristics that identify life as a properly human life, asks about its ultimate meaning or purpose, and raises questions about what counts as a good life.  This examination studies the positions taken on these issues by major philosophers representing different philosophical traditions or approaches and different periods in the history of philosophy.  It explains and analyzes the way these philosophers justify their claims and focuses especially on how the different traditions or approaches use different principles and methodologies to support their view.  This examination exposes several features of human living that seem to distinguish being human from other ways of being alive: something special about the way human beings seek and acquire knowledge, govern their actions, relate to nature and to each other, and raise questions about something above and beyond human life.  Thus, the course organizes around a common concern fundamental questions that define specific areas of philosophical inquiry: knowledge questions, nature-spirit questions, freedom questions, moral and social issues, the transcendence issue; and it shows how these questions belong to and emerge from reflections on what defines human life or gives it meaning.


Knowledge Area(s) satisfied:

Philosophical Knowledge

Skill(s) Developed:

Communication Skills and Sensitivities-Written, Critical Thinking Skills and Dispositions, Ethical Awareness and Decision-Making

Values Requirement(s) satisfied:

Understanding the Other, Promoting Generosity and Sensitiveness, Increasing Civic Engagement.



Learning Objectives: 


Knowledge Area (Philosophical Knowledge):


The course addresses a question that has been a major issue for philosophers throughout the history of philosophical inquiry. Eastern thought brings out of its meditations on self-knowledge or on the fundamental inclination of human nature its reflections on the nature of the self, benevolent government, virtuous life, true relationships.  In the West, philosophers of the ancient and medieval periods address the question of being human by looking for a form or essence that defines human life.  Early modern philosophy absorbed the concern with what is characteristically human into a concern with the character of human knowledge, its nature and limits.  Late modern and contemporary philosophy opened up the question by showing how relations to nature, other human subjects, and society play a fundamental role in what makes life a properly human life.  Finally, the course has as an explicit aim the task of showing how the main issue it addresses, what identifies life as a properly human life, functions as a foundational issue in more specific areas of philosophical inquiry.  In the process, it organizes around a common concern most of the major questions addressed by philosophy throughout its history: human knowledge, free action, ethics and social relations, philosophy of religion.  Thus, this course  promotes informed reflection on various areas, topics, and figures in philosophy, makes students familiar with influential philosophical questions, positions, and methods of inquiry, and helps them develop intellectual attitudes appropriate to philosophical reflection.


Skills (Communication Skills and Sensitivities-Written):


Because philosophy expects students of philosophy to organize their thinking in an orderly way, philosophy courses improve students  writing skills.



Skills (Critical Thinking Skills and Dispositions):

Aristotle says that philosophy begins with wonder. Wonder sees the familiar with new eyes, and thus liberates the mind to look at life in new ways. This is what makes critical thinking enriching and creative. This course elicits wonder by questioning the ultimate meaning of the most familiar thing of all, human life.  It works with this perspective shift by entering into dialogue with great philosophers, paying close attention to their meaning, their reasons, their concerns, their vision, and by examining the way their different philosophically defended views challenge each other. In the process, it brings the students own reflections into the dialogue, and shows them how to recognize reasons supporting a view, identify unexamined presuppositions, appreciate astute insights, and expose vulnerabilities. In this way, the course reinforces the dispositions and skills involved in critical thinking.



Skills (Ethical Awareness and Decision-Making):

This course contributes to ethical awareness by showing how moral concerns emerge in reflections on a meaningful human life.  By encouraging good listening, and by showing how relations to others belong to fundamental human aspirations, the course fosters an expanded spirit toward other people.





Terry Eagleton,The Meaning of Life: A Very Short Introduction
Edition: 2008
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Retail Price: $11.95

Course-Pack available on Sakai


Other readings will be provided before the beginning of the course by blackboard or by copies


Internet Resources:

  • JSTOR,
  • Philosopher's Index
  • Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy




Exams – Assignments - Paper

Note: the date and time of the exams cannot be changed for any reason


1. Class Attendance and Participation

It counts for 10% of the final grade


2. Home Assignments:


  • · Weekly readings
  • · 8 written assignments in which students will be expected to read some pages and answer an essay question.
  • · The assignments must be typed (font size:12, space: 1.5, at least 2/3 pages) and printed for class
  • · The assignments count for a total of 10% of the final course grade.
  • · Points will be taken off for missing or incomplete answers
  • · # 1 (mock test): to be handed in on September 4 (TBD)

# 1: to be handed in on September 11 (TBD)

# 3: to be handed in on September 16 (TBD)

# 4: to be handed in on October 2 (TBD)

# 5: to be handed in on October 23 (TBD)

# 6: to be handed in on October 30 (TBD)

# 7: to be handed in on November 6 (TBD)

# 8: to be handed in on November 13 (TBD)





3. Oral presentation:

  • · It counts for 15% of the final course grade.
  • · The dates of the presentations will be decided on the first day of class.
  • · For no reason the date and time of the oral presentation can be changed


4. Midterm exam:

  • · It counts for 25% of the final course grade.
  • · It will take place on October 2. For no reason the date and time of the scheduled exam can be changed. (Date TBD)
  • ·The Midterm exam will consist of text commentary: two excerpts out of three from the texts in the course pack (30 points); a concise essay (not less than one page) on a well-circumscribed issue (40 points) and a list of about 10 short questions on the issues debated in class summing up to 30 points in case of all perfect answers.


5. Quizzes:

  • ·some unannounced pop-quizzes that will not be graded
  • ·three graded quizzes: on September 18, October 28, November 27 (TBD)
  • ·students are expected to answer some open questions or write their own reflections on what has been debated in class or on the philosophical readings and issues prepared for the lesson
  • ·they count for 15% of the final course grade. 



6. Final exam:

  • ·it counts for 25% of the final course grade.
  • ·it will take place on December 9. For no reason the date and time of the scheduled exam can be changed. (TBD)
  • ·FORMAT:

Part One: 31 multiple choice questions (A-D) of which the student must answer 30. Each question is worth 1% of the Final Exam so thirty correct answers will be worth 30%.

Part Two: Five essay questions of which the student must answer two. Each essay is worth 35% of the Final Exam. The student is expected to write at least two sides of A4 on each essay question and should not duplicate material in the two essays. 



Plagiarism is unacceptable. All information and quotations form sources must be documented.


There will also be an ongoing discussion on the assigned reading. Students will be asked to write a brief presentation of the assigned materials and a volunteer will read its presentation to the class. A one-page essay assigned by the instructor may be substituted for the students missed presentations. Substitute essays are due to the class following the missed presentation; otherwise, they will not be accepted.



The following is a breakdown of how various grades will be weighed


Final Grade Breakdown

10% Attendance and class participation

10% Home assignments

15% Quizzes

15% Oral presentation

25% Midterm Exam

25% Final Exam



Grading Policy

I use the following table in determining final grades:


Letter Grade




98-100 %



92 %



88 %



85 %



82 %



78 %



75 %



72 %



68 %



65 %





Attendance & Participations:

  • Each absence from class will negatively impact your final grade
  • Before or after every absence the students are asked to email the instructor
  • Active Participation: students are expected to be attentive in class, respond to the intellectual soliciting, manifest their needs for clarity and express their own thoughts when they find the topic stimulating, actively participate and contribute to class discussion. Being physically present in class, but doing other activities (reading things that do not regard the course, using lap tops to check emails, engaging into private small talk etc) will lower the points granted for participation. Each student is expected to have his or her copy of the course pack.
  • Students are asked to behave respectfully with the professor and their class colleagues.
  • Cell-phones must be off
  • It is always the student's responsibility to know how many absences they have in a course.

Course Outline:

The course explores philosophical perspectives on being human—your human nature—by addressing four core questions:

1.  Are you a critical thinker? 

2.  Are you free? 

3. Which values do you promote? 

4.  What do you do to increase your civic engagement? 


Lectures are based on power point displays and readings from philosophical texts. Class discussion is encouraged at all times.


Reading Schedule: (DATES TBD)


  1. I.                    Are you a critical thinker?

Mon. 9/2 – Plato, Introduction

Wed. 9/4 – Plato, Apology

Mon. 9/9 – Plato, Apology

Wed. 9/11 – Plato, Phaedo

Mon. 9/16 – Plato, Phaedo

Wed. 9/18 – Plato, Republic (video on blackboard)

Mon. 9/23 – Plato, Republic

Wed. 9/25 – Plato, Republic

Mon. 9/30 –Plato, Republic

Wed. 10/2 – Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics


[Mid-term exam: 10/2]


Fall break: 10/ 4-13


  1. Are you free?

Mon. 10/14 – I. Kant, Critique of Practical Reason

Wed. 10/16 – I. Kant, Critique of Practical Reason


  1. Which values do you promote?

Mon. 10/21 --  Review

Wed. 10/23 --  Review

Mon. 10/28 – Hobbes, Leviathan

Wed. 10/30 – Hobbes, Leviathan

Mon. 11/4 – Locke , Second Treatise on Government (video on blackboard)

Wed. 11/6 – Locke , Second Treatise on Government

Mon. 11/11 – Locke, Second Treatise on Government

Wed. 11/13– Hume, Treatise on Human Nature

Mon. 11/18 -- Hume,  Treatise on Human Nature


  1. IV.               What do you do to increase your civic engagement? 

Wed. 11/20 – Husserl, Crisis

Mon. 11/25 – Sen, Development as Freedom

Wed. 11/27 – Arendt, The Origin of Totalitarianism


Thanksgiving Break: 11/28-12/1


Mon. 12/2 – Arendt, The Origin of Totalitarianism [Second take-home exam]

Wed. 12/4 – Study-day

Mon. 12/9 -  FINAL EXAM


Essays/ Tasks/ Role-Plays/ Oral Presentation:


  1. Are you a critical thinker?

What is critical thinking? What are some critical thinking skills? What are some critical thinking attitudes?  Besides critical thinking, what are some other forms of good thinking?  What are some heuristics (tools) related to intuitive thinking?  What are some heuristics related to critical reasoning?  Why is critical thinking so valuable?  What is a criticism of critical thinking?  How can you acquire your knowledge?


09/4 (1st  essay)

Type 100 words (min.): One way to explore the meaning of critical thinking is to examine a model case.  Choose a former teacher, friend, or family member who is a good critical thinker, and then give an example of when this person exercised critical thinking. 

Day to be defined (1st  role play)

Role-play: work with a partner or a group of three people maximum and reproduce a dialogue in the style of Plato where your aim is to find out your partner’s values without asking (e.g. without using phrases “Do you believe…?”) 


09/11 (2nd essay)

Type 200 words (min.): Give me an assessment of your critical thinking skills by selecting your strongest (choose one) and weakest (choose one) skill, and then illustrate each one with an example. 



09/16 (3rd essay)

Type a 300-word (min.) on weaknesses and strengths of Plato’s idea of knowledge and State



  1. Are you free?

What is the relation between your freedom and God?  What are the three components of authentic decision-making? Why authenticity instead of happiness?  What is the role of emotions in decision-making?  What are three different kinds of emotions involved in serious decision-making?  What is the relation between subjectivity and decision-making?  What is a coward in relationship to decision-making? What are examples of non-authentic decision-making?  What is the relation between depression and decision-making?  How do you make a decision?


10/02 (4th essay)

Type 200 words (min.): write what you mean by “freedom” and which kind of relationship there is between freedom and God.


  1. Which values do you promote?

How do you choose your values? What is your hierarchy of values? Which of your  values are in conflict? How does a society choose its values? How do we defend them?  Do we all share the same values? How do we handle values of different cultures  which are incompatible with are own ? Are all the values fair and right? Who decides political values?


10/23 (5th essay)

Type 100 words (min.): how a state of nature passes to a civil society


10/30 (6th essay)

Type 200 words (min.) choose a passage from Locke and comment on it in light of the “Articles of Declaration”.

Day to be defined yet (2nd  Role Play)

Role Play in class: build a society from scratch. Which values will be at the basis of this new society?


11/06 (7th essay)

Type 400 words (min.) about Locke’s, Hobbes’ and Hume’s political system. What would you keep and change? Which values do they defend?



  1. What do you do to increase your civic engagement? 

How do you live with other people?  This question has two parts: How do you live with one other person in a friendship/love relationship, and how do you live with groups of people in society?


11/13 (8th essay)

Type 300 words (min.) the question of “Do you exist? Who is your witness? Do you need to have one?