Loyola University Chicago

John Felice Rome Center

ClSt 395 / RoSt 395 - Topography of Ancient Rome

Spring 2012

Course Description and Objectives

         This is an upper level survey course on the topography of the city of Rome from its origins (c. 753 B.C.) to the reign of Constantine (312-337 AD). The class is  taught almost entirely at archeological sites and in museums. The topography of the most important areas and neighborhoods, of their natural and especially of their artificial or man-made physical features including roads, bridges, designated areas of commerce, ritual and assembly, monuments and artworks are the “primary sources” for an examination of the political, religious and social function and meaning of the built environment and visual culture of Ancient Rome. The primary aim f the course is to provide an in-depth familiarity and appreciation of the multifaceted nature of city in its original historical context. N.B. The course has a fee of € 61. 50 per student, to cover cost of tickets at sites and museums. Please settle fee with the business office at the beginning of term.



Course specific skills:

  •          ability to interpret the urban topography and development of Rome
  •          understanding of key aspects of Greco-Roman art and architecture
  •          ability to analyze motives in the creation and reception of ancient art and architecture
  •           ability to analyze the socio-political context of public art and architecture in Rome

Discipline specific skills

  •          skills for the critical analysis of visual culture in general and art and architecture specifically
  •          familiarity with different methods of art historical analysis and terminology and the ability to deploy them successfully

General academic skills:

  •           ability to apply critical thinking and analysis
  •            ability to select and organize material to produce a coherent and cogent argument - and to do so to a deadline!
  •           ability to present complex arguments orally
  •           ability to exchange ideas and engage in discussion with peers.

Course texts

Available to be purchased at JFRC

Ø  Coarelli, F. (2007) Rome and Environs. An Archeological Guide

Ø  Course Handbook

Required Reading Library Reserve (chapters, entries or page numbers specified in the course schedule)

Ø  Kleiner, D.E.E. (1992) Roman Sculpture

Ø  Stambaugh, J. (1988) The Ancient Roman City

Ø  Claridge, A. (1988) The Oxford Archeological Guide to Rome


**********See also the list of Suggested Reading***********



Final grades are based on attendance, participation, 6 quizzes, 1 oral report, 1 final exam, and 1 term paper, as follows:


Attendance                                   required, not graded

Participation                                5%

Presentation                                15%

Quizzes                                          25%

Mid-term exam                            15%

Final Exam:                                   20%

Term Paper                                   20%


Attendance (required not graded)

All scheduled classes are mandatory. You are allowed only one unjustified absence, every unjustified absence thereafter will result in the loss of a quarter of a grade. (E.g. if your final grade is a B, two unjustified absences will bring it down to a C+.) Please obtain a written note from a doctor or the Dean for justified absences (only unforeseen events such illnesses or accidents).  Attendance will be taken at the beginning of each class. Because this is an on-site course which occasionally includes special scheduled permits to sites and museums it has strict time limitations. You must, therefore, always be punctual.  You should calculate 90 minutes travel time from JFRC to our meeting places (specified below in the class schedule.) This means you must be out of the door by 8:00 AM! It is your responsibility to find out where the meeting places are. You may ask me in advance, but no later than during the class the week before. I will not respond to last minute emails or phone calls. Coarelli, F. (2007) Rome and Environs. An Archeological Guide  (your textbook!) has many useful maps to locate sites. For subway and bus lines consult www.atac. it (available in English).


Participation (5% of course grade)

Active participation is expected of all students and is graded (10% of the course grade, which, e.g., could result in an A rather than an A-).  Participating means coming to class having read the week’s assignment (listed in the schedule below), prepared to ask and answer questions and to share any pertinent observations. Remember too that the more you engage, the more fun the class will be not only for you but also for everyone else (me included).


7 Quizzes (25% of course grade; 5% each; the 2 quizzes with the lowest scores will be omitted).

Your preparation during the semester will also be evaluated through 6 quizzes on specific areas, neighborhoods, individual monuments, sets of monuments and their original significance in Ancient Rome. The dates are inserted in the course schedule. The quizzes are structured to assess your knowledge of essential facts about areas, neighborhoods, monuments, artworks in Ancient Rome and your ability to critically interpret and asses their historical significance. The nature of the questions making will thus vary from identification (name/type of area or monument, date, location, function and patronage) and description (main characteristics of an area, structural and decorative components of monuments, materials used, etc) to historical analysis and interpretation (e.g. the possible motivations for designating an area of the city with specific functions or the significance- political, religious, social aesthetic, etc.- of individual monuments). The quizzes will be based on material that we will have previously covered in class, but completing the required reading is necessary to pass each and every quiz. The kind of questions will determine whether individual quizzes or parts of them will be taken in class or completed at home. Quizzes in class vary from 5 to 10 minutes. Take-home questions with specifications on length (short!) will be posted on Blackboard by Thurs. afternoon of each week and are to be turned in class  on the following Tuesday. You are more than welcome to discuss the take-home questions with one another, but the final answer must be in your own words. The 2 quizzes with the lowest score will not be included in the overall score.


Presentation (15% of course grade)

The presentation is based on independent research and intended to develop skills of observation, of evaluation and interpretation, and of presentation and public speaking. It consists of a 5-10 minute presentation to the class on an area, monument, artwork or historical topic. The topics have been inserted in the course schedule.  On the second class, Tues. Sept. 20, you will be asked to list 1st, 2nd and 3rd choices. I'll do my best to ensure that each student is given one of the three (students often gravitate to the same topics...)

The presentation must include:

• a descriptive account of the monument/artwork

• a contextual and interpretative discussion (function, patronage, meanings, associations, impact)

• a pertinent ancient source to be read to the class  (Aicher 2006 and Shelton 1998 are two good sourcebooks)

• 2-3 questions based on your discussion of the monument, artwork or subject

On the day of presentation you must submit:

          1. one page handout to all members of the class (including me) with an outline of indicating the key points of your presentation. If appropriate -and not available in the course handbook- please also provide copies of supporting images

          2. a summary (c. 3 pages) consisting of a detailed outline  of your presentation to be tuned into me.

          3. a bibliography with at least 4 references to be tuned into me. The bibliography may include the ancient source, but only one archeological guide book (so either Coarelli 2007 or Claridge 1998).  For other references please use:

• titles provided in the course schedule under required and suggested reading

• other pertinent books available in the JFRC library

• journal articles available through JSTOR, MUSE and other legitimate academic publication data bases. Please be aware that for other Internet sources, the rule of thumb is if it exists in print it is acceptable, if doesn't it isn't.  So, e.g. an article from an academic periodical ALSO available on line  is fine, but a web-site on individual monuments is not. When in doubt, please ask me.

• For images, please search ARTSTOR and Vroma.org before using other internet sources.

            1-3 combined with the presentation itself will form the basis of your grade


Term Paper (20% of the course grade)

          Due Date:  Tues. Apr. 17. No late papers accepted. Early papers welcome.

          Length: 3000 words (c. 8 double-spaced pages), exclusive of footnotes, bibliography, sketches and/or other supporting images

          Topic: Flavian Rome

The paper is intended to develop skills of independent research, ability to evaluate and interpret materials and their inherent interests, and capability for discussing these in a nuanced manner in writing. The paper should be a combination of visual analysis, iconographic and historical research and contextual interpretation. In other words, a formal essay that demonstrates the skills that you have developed and honed during the semester. The paper must include a complete bibliography of sources used, and all references to, and arguments/examples from sources read must be fully cited. Outlines or drafts are optional but must be turned in at least 2 weeks prior to the due date. Similarly if you have questions on content or bibliography set up an appointment with me at least one week prior to the due date. If you have questions about paraphrasing, quoting primary and secondary sources or methods of citation refer to a writer’s manual (e.g. The Chicago Manual of Style). But please nore that but there is no required format style; what is required is consistency- that is, pick one format and stick to it!

**. Additional guidelines, with details on the topic and other specifications, will be posted on Blackboard in the first few weeks of the semester. We will also be reviewing these guidelines in class.


Exams: Mid-term (15%  of the course grade) and Final (20% of the course grade)

The exams are structured to assess your knowledge of essential facts about areas, neighborhoods, monuments, artworks in Ancient Rome and your ability to critically interpret and asses their historical significance. The exams are based on lectures, reading assignments and class presentations.

        The mid-term exam takes place at JFRC on Tues. Feb. 28, 10:00-12:00 AM. It covers course material studied through class 6. A review session for the exam will take place during class 6.

        The final exam takes place at JFRC on April 24 (9:30-11:30). It is cumulative, although with a greater emphasis on material studied in the second-half of term. The last scheduled class is a review session for the final exam.

        Both exams are consist in

-6 slide identifications 5 minutes each, worth 30% of your exam grade (5% each).  Name, typology, date, media, (original) location, function, and patronage must be specified as known or relevant. E.g. the Colosseum does not, strictly speaking, have a subject, but the marble friezes on the Ara Pacis do; a portrait statue of Augustus is just that, but the emperor may be depicted as young, middle-aged or old, may be dressed in civilian, priestly or military garb (or combinations...), etc. and these kinds of visual elements must be both mentioned and described (e.g. how is Augustus made to look youthful? how can you tell he is depicted in his role as priest?).  The key to a successful identification is to indicate in at least one reason the topographical area, monument or artwork was significant in its original historical context.  For example in addition to noting that the Colosseum was built by Vespasian on the site of the artificial lake in Nero's Domus Aurea complex, you should explain (however briefly) that the location was very significant from a symbolic (and propagandistic!) point of view since it transformed imperial property destined for the enjoyment of Nero alone to a public venue destined for the entertainment of all Roman citizens. Similarly, in addition to noting that a portrait of Augustus shows him as youthful, you should also mention that all his portraits show him as young and discuss (however briefly) what message was being conveyed by representing the Roman emperor as eternally young... An identification which lists a complete series of correct facts, will score less than an identification that is missing a few facts but which includes an assessment of why it is historically significant.

-4 slide comparisons 10 minutes each, worth 40% of the exam grade. One or more images of two sites or monuments will be shown to you. You must identify them (again name, typology, date, media, (original) location, function, and patronage must be specified as known or relevant), why the are historically significant but also (and most importantly!)  consider them in relation to one another: i.e. discuss significant similarities and differences (often structural or formal components, location, function, meaning and patronage). Typically comparisons are about connections.  So e.g. the fact that one monument shown is a painting and another a sculpture is less important to note than how the two are similar or different in relation to a shared component. For example, the two monuments may be contemporary and thus be an expression of interrelated (though not necessarily identical) concerns of the period.  .

-1 essay 30 minutes, worth 30% of the exam grade. Two weeks prior to the exam, you will be given 2 essay questions accompanied by images of sites and/or monuments.  One of the two will be on exam. (But the second will undoubtedly show up in the identifications and comparisons, so be sure to prepare for both)


Reading Assignments. With the exception the course handbook, all readings are listed by author and date in course schedule, including chapters, entries or page numbers. The readings listed in the course schedule are occasionally repeated. This is because we proceed chronologically, topographically and thematically and focus on both art and architecture in the city of Rome, while the organization of the books in the required and suggested reading varies. This is a reading intensive course and to successfully complete it you should spend at least 4 hrs per week outside of class reading, taking notes, and looking at pictures. Note too that completing your required reading means going to the library and using the reserve shelf.  Please organize your time, keeping in mind that other students will also be using the shelf (xeroxing relevant pages is always an option).


Suggested Reading  A bibliography of additional reading and is provided after the course schedule (under heading entitled: Suggested Reading). A number of these readings are assigned, with an annotation of content, under the heading "Suggested Reading" in the course schedule. This means that they are not mandatory, but they are strongly recommended. Usually students who achieve top grades (B+, A- and A) are those who consistently do a significant amount of the recommended reading. Many of the sources cited, moreover, will be indispensable for both your presentation and term paper. The titles are abbreviated in the schedule, but are listed in full in the bibliography at the end of the syllabus.They are available on the reserve shelf in the library, in the stacks in the library, or retrievable from the internet, especially via JSTOR.  If you have never downloaded articles from JSTOR the librarians will be more than happy to show you how easy it is! You are also strongly encouraged to look at as many Roman monuments as possible both in person, reproduced in books and available on line (see the list of Internet resources also provided); this is par for the course for anyone taking art history. And of course to read even more.


The course-handbook must be brought to each and every class, as it has plans, elevations, reconstructions of monuments and excerpts from Ancient authors that we need to consult during class.


Class-handouts. Beginning with the second class (our first on-site), you will be given a hand-out consisting of a brief summary of the class, a list of the areas, monuments visited, and terms (usually no more than 1 or 2 typed pages). Occasionally images or excerpts from Ancient texts not included in the handbook will also be provided. These handouts are meant to help you organize your notes but, as you will quickly realize, they in no way replace careful note-taking.


Taking notes in class. As for any course it is imperative to take notes, but because we will almost invariably be standing during class you should consider a liquid-ink pen or a pencil and a hard-back note-book or a clipboard for your note pad. Taking notes in your course handbook is also an option (and a helpful one, as you have text and images together), but it too is soft and so probably also requires the aid of a clipboard.


Photography. You are allowed to bring your camera to class, but may take pictures only just before we have finished discussing individual monuments, that is without interrupting class.


Dress-code. Please remember to wear sturdy but comfortable shoes and to be equipped for the weather. Note too that in Italy, generally speaking, the better you dress the better they treat you. You do not, by any means, have to be elegant when you come to class, but please do not come in sweat-pants, shorts, ripped T-shirts and jeans, flip-flops and the like!



Grade Scale

A =     100% - 95%

B- =    79% - 75%

D+ =  59% - 55%

A- =    94% - 90%

C+ = 74% -70%

D =    54% - 50%

B+ = 89% - 85%

C =     69% - 65%

F=      49% and below

B =     84% - 80%

C- =    64% - 60%



Marking Criteria

Grade: A Work of this quality is rare and should stand out. It may be the case that in some areas of study a modest number of students achieve this mark on some assignments. However, when aggregating the marks awarded for the various elements of assessment, it is not expected that many students will achieve this overall result.  Work that receives a grade of A is characterized by the following:

  • Directly addresses the question or problem raised
  • Provides a coherent argument displaying an extensive knowledge of relevant information
  • Critically evaluates concepts and theory
  • Relates theory to practice
  • Reflects the student's own argument and is not simply a repetition of standard lecture and reference material
  • Is very accurate; has an element of novelty if not originality
  • Provides evidence of reading beyond the required reading
  • Displays an awareness of methodological concerns and displays an awareness of the limitations of current knowledge

Grade: B This is a highly competent level of performance. Students earning this grade may be deemed capable of pursuing more advanced study. Work that receives a grade of B is characterized by the following:

  • Directly addresses the question or problem raised
  • Provides a coherent argument drawing on relevant information
  • Shows some ability to evaluate concepts and theory and to relate theory to practice
  • Reflects the student's own argument and is not simply a repetition of standard lecture and reference material
  • Does not suffer from any major errors or omissions
  • Provides evidence of reading beyond the required reading
  • Displays an awareness of other approaches to the problem area

Grade: C This is an acceptable level of performance. All competent students should be expected to achieve at least this level. Work that receives a grade of C is characterized by the following:

  • Addresses the question but provides only a basic outline of relevant arguments and evidence along the lines of that offered in the lectures and referenced readings
  • Answers are clear but limited
  • Some minor omissions and inaccuracies but no major errors

Grade: C- This level of performance demonstrates some knowledge and an element of understanding but is, on the whole, weak. Students attaining this level of performance should compose a small minority of those in a course and should not expect to progress to more advanced degree work. Work that receives a grade of C- is characterized by the following:

  • Points made in the answer are not always well supported by argument and evidence
  • Relevant points have been omitted from the answer
  • There are some errors in the answer
  • Parts of the question remain unanswered
  • Answers may be unduly brief and possibly in note form

Grade: D These grades indicate that the students in question have barely done enough to persuade the instructor that they should not be failed. Work that receives a grade of D is characterized by the following:

  • Answers lack a coherent grasp of the problems and issues raised in the question
  • Important information has been omitted from the answers and irrelevant points have been included
  • Answers are far too brief

Grade: F Failing grades should be granted to work that indicates to the instructor that the students who submitted it have not benefitted in any clear way from academic study. Failing work:

  • Fails to show any knowledge or understanding of the issues raised in the question
  • Reveals fundamental misunderstanding of the subject matter
  • Most of the material in the answer is irrelevant


Academic Honesty is assumed of all students. All forms of academic dishonesty (cheating on exams, plagiarizing papers, etc) will result automatically in an F for the assignment and may result in the student receiving a failing grade for the course (irrespective of the weight of the assignment). All instances of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Dean. Please consult the LCU undergraduate catalog for a full description of the University’s academic integrity policy.



1. Tues. Jan 17







Meeting place:


Suggested Reading:


Introduction to course

Ø  Course content and methodology

Ø  Course requirements, logistics, etc.

Ø  Chronological and thematic overview

Ø  Early Italy: the Latins and their neighbors in central Italy

Ø  Rome between Magna Grecia and Etruria




Stambaugh (1988): "Introduction"; Coulston, J. and Dodge, H. in Coulston and Dodge 2000: introduction to archeology and topography of Rome; Elsener (1998), Ch. 2 ("A Visual Culture"); Coarelli (2007): 1-9 (Introduction); Claridge (1988): 3- 27 (historical overview)

2. Tues. Jan 24




Meeting place:


Required reading:









Suggested Reading:


Rome's foundation: topography and mythology: Tiber, Tiber Island, F. Holitorium, F. Boarium, Circus Maximus, Palatine, Aventine, Roman Forum Valley and Capitoline / Architectural typologies and building materials


Ponte Garibaldi viewing platform on left side (when facing Trastevere)


Coarelli (2007): 1-9 (Introduction), 348-50 (Tiber Island), 307-10 (intro. F Holitorium, et al), 315-19 (Portus Tiberinus, T Portunus and Ara Maxima Hercules), 323-27 (Circus Maximus); Stambaugh (1988): Introduction and Ch. 1 (Earliest Rome); Claridge (1988): 37-58 (building materials and techniques, architectural orders and dimensions, building types) Xeroxing the pages from Claridge is strongly recommended, as they will come in handy throughout course;  on bldg. techniques and construction materials see also Coarelli's Appendix


Coulston, J. and Dodge, H. in Coulston and Dodge 2000: introduction to archeology and topography of Rome; Smith in Coulston and Dodge (2000), esp. 24-35: early and Archaic Rome; Wiseman, T.P. (2004): Roman Myths




3. Tues. Jan. 31



Meeting place:


Required reading:








Suggested Reading:

Architecture, art and identity from the Kings to the mid-Republic

Palatine Hill and Roman Forum Valley


Palatine Hill entrance on Via di San Gregorio


Coarelli (2007): 130-38 (intro. Palatine, Iron Age huts, western temples), 42-47 (intro R Forum), 91-92 (Archaic cemetery), 81-89 (Via Sacra, Regia, T Vesta, House Vestal Virgins), 50-57 (Shrine Venus Cloacina, Comitium, Curia Hostilia, Black Stone), 65-66 (T Saturn), 74-77 (T Castor and Pollux and Juturna), 67-68 (T Concordia and Carcer Tullianum); Stambaugh (1988): Ch. 1 ("Earliest Rome"), Ch. 2 ("Expansion under the Republic") and Ch. 7, esp. pp. 101-114 -Kings to Republic)


Claridge (1988): 3-7 (history Kings to the 3rd cent. B.C.), 119-128 (intro. Palatine, Hut of Romulus, Victory Precinct and T Magna Mater), 61-65 (intro. R Forum), 68 (Shrine of Cloacina), 72-73 (Comitium and Black stone), 77-78 (T Concordia), 80-81 (T Saturn), 91-92 (T Castor and Pollux), 95-97 (Juturna), 101-106 (T Vesta and Regia); Cornell in Coulston and Dodge (2000): Rome in the Mid-Republic; Smith in Coulston and Dodge (2000), esp. 24-35: early and Archaic Rome; Stambaugh (1988): Ch. 13 ("The City and the Gods"); Stamper (2005): 6-10 (intro. to Ch. 1) and 34-40 (early Republican R Forum), 56-59 (later phase of T Castor and Pollux)


*Quiz 1, Part I TAKE HOME DUE


*Quiz 1, Part II IN CLASS:  architectural orders and materials




4. Tues. Feb. 7



Meeting place:


Required reading:








Suggested Reading:

Transitions from Republic to Empire: Temples, Theatres & Triumphs

Capitoline Hill, southern Campus Martius, F. Boarium and F. Holitorium


Capitoline Hill by equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius


Coarelli (2007): 11-18 (intro. city Walls and Servian Walls), 28-36 (intro. Capitoline, T JOM, Area Capitolina), 40 (T Juno Moneta, Auguraculum), 260-67 (intro C Martius, Circus Flaminius), 270-71 (T Apollo Sosianus and T Bellona), 275-81 (Area Sacra Largo Argentina), 283-85 (Theater Pompey), 289-90 (Saepta Julia), 307-10 (intro. F Holitorium, et al), 313-19 (Temples F Holitorium, T Portunus and Round T); Stambaugh (1988): Chs. 2 (Expansion under the Republic), Ch. 3 (Late Republic) and 110-14 (Kings to Republic)


Claridge (1988): 3-14 (history), 229-241 (Capitoline), 177-80 (intro C Martius), 214-19 (Theatre Pompey and Area Sacra Largo Argentina), 207 (Saepta Julia), 247-55 (T Bellona, temples F Holitorium, arcades along the triumphal way, S.Omobono temples, T Portunus, Round T); Beard (2007), esp. 42-53, 92-106: triumphal route/culture; Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), pp. 219-227: theatres; Cornell in Coulston and Dodge (2000): Rome in the mid-Republic; Flower, H. (2004), pp. 322-343: triumphs, funerals, spectacle and politics; Kuttner (1995): Hellenistic influences Republican Rome; Patterson (1992): topographical overview Republic to Empire; Shelton (1998): 251-52, 329-31: triumphs and spectacles; Stambaugh (1988): Ch. 13 ("The City and the Gods") and 14 ("Roman Holidays"); Stamper (2005): 6-15 and 32, 33 (T JOM), 44-48 (Area Sacra Largo Argentina), 49-50 (triumph, victory temples), 53-56 (temples southern Campus Martius), 59-68 (temples F Holitorium, T Portunus), 68-81 (Round T, Area Sacra Largo Argentina), 84-90 (Theatre Pompey); Strong (1988): Preface to the First Edition and Ch. 1 ("The Beginnings"); Ziokowski (1988): Round T

*Quiz 2, Part I TAKE HOME DUE

*Quiz 2, Part II IN CLASS: Roman Forum Valley, Kings to Early Republic

Oral Reports: 

1. Theatre of Pompey

2. The triumph

3. Round Temple in the Forum Boarium

5. Tues. Feb. 14





Meeting place:


Required reading:








Suggested Reading:




















The Forum in the Late Republic/

 Caesar and Augustus: dynasty and architectural patronage

Roman Forum from the second century BC to Caesar and Augustus

Forum of Caesar and Forum of Augustus


Entrance to Roman Forum on Via dei Fori Imperiali


Coarelli (2007): 42-54 (R Forum overview, Basilica Fulvia-Aemilia, Porticus Gaius and Lucius, Comitium), 57-59 (Curia Julia), 64-5 (Imperial Rostra), 71-75 (Basilica Julia, T Castor and Pollux), 79-81 (Divus Iulius, Arch of Augustus), 103-113 (F Caesar, F Augustus); Kleiner (1992): 59-61 (intro Augustus and Augustan art), 86-88 (Parthian Arch), 99-103 (F Augustus); Stambaugh (1988): Ch. 4 (Augustan City) and 114-119 (City Government, Caesar to Augustus)


Claridge (1988): 9-14 (history), 61-68 (intro R Forum, Porticus Gaius and Lucius, Basilica Aemilia), 70-72 (Curia), 77-78 (T Concordia), 81-84 (Rostra), 89-90 (Basilica Julia), 91-92 (T Castor and Pollux), 97-99 (Divus Julius, Arch of Augustus), 148-53 (F Caesar), and 158-161 (F Augustus); Kellum (1997): esp. 164-7 (F Augustus); Patterson (1992): topographical overview Republic to Empire; Rose (2005): esp. 24-26 (Prima Porta statue), 28-36 (Parthian Arch); Stamper (2005): 90-104 (F Caesar, Caesarian R Forum), 105-115 (intro Augustus and Augustan R Forum), Ch. 8 (F Augustus, Augustan-Julio-Claudian R Forum); Walker in Coulston and Dodge 2000: 61-75 (Augustan patronage); Ward Perkins (1981): Ch. 1 ("Augustan Rome"); Zanker (1988), esp. 79-82, 98-99, 113-14, 185-215 (R Forum, Parthians, Prima Porta statue, F Augustus)


*Quiz 3, IN CLASS: monuments on the Triumphal Route

 Oral Reports: 

4. Temple of Divus Iulius 

5. Parthian Arch (aka as Arch of Augustus)

6. Statue of the Prima Porta Augustus (the original is in the Vatican Museums, but a copy is on display by the Forum of Augustus)

6. Tues. Feb. 21




Meeting place:


Required reading:






Suggested Reading:


The Campus Martius in the Age of Augustus

Mausoleum of Augustus, Ara Pacis, Horologium, Agrippan Pantheon, Aqua Virgo and Baths, Portico of Octavia and Theatre of Marcellus


Side of the Ara Pacis Museum by inscription opposite Mausoleum of Augustus


Coarelli (2007): 260-272 (intro C Martius, Theater Marcellus, T Apollo Sosianus, Portico Octavia), 285-286 (Baths of Agrippa), 299-304 (Ara Pacis and Mausoleum); Kleiner (1992): 59-61 (intro to Augustus and Augustan art), 90-99 (Ara Pacis and Mausoleum); Stambaugh (1988): Ch. 4 (The Augustan City) and pp. 114-119 (J. Caesar to Augustus)


Claridge (1988): 11-14 (history), 181-192 (monuments northern C Martius), 222-226 (Porticus Octavia), and 243-247 (Theatre Marcellus, T Apollo Medicus Sosianus); Clarke, (2003): 19-28 (monuments northern C Martius); Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), pp. 219-227: theatres; Davies (2000): 13-19, 76-78 (sundial) 137-42 (Mausoleum); Holliday (1990): Ara Pacis; Patterson (1992): topographical overview Republic to Empire; Rose (1990): Ara Pacis; Stamper (2005): 105-108 (Augustus), 126-129 (Augustan Campus Martius); Strong (1988): 80-84 (Ara Pacis); Walker in Coulston and Dodge 2000: 61-75 (Augustan patronage); Ward Perkins (1981): Ch. 1 ("Augustan Rome"); Zanker, P. (1988), esp. 72-75, 139-43, 156-9, 172-83 (Augustan C Martius)


*Quiz 4, Part I TAKE HOME DUE

*Quiz 4, PART II IN CLASS: Roman Forum, Caesar to Augustus


Oral Reports:

7. Mausoleum of Augustus

8. Augustan Sundial (aka Horologium)


Mid-term review

********Do not forget to bring mid-term review sheet******




7. Tues. Feb. 28








Friday March 2-

Monday March 11




*********SPRING BREAK*********




8. Tues. Mar. 12



Meeting Place:



Required reading:





Suggested reading:

Portraiture from the Late Republic to Vespasian

 The Garden Fresco from the villa of Livia at Prima Porta


Palazzo Massimo entrance (Piazza dei Cinquecento, across street from Stazione Termini)


Kleiner (1992): Ch. 1: 31-47 (Republican Portraiture), Ch. 2, 59-69 (intro to Augustus and Augustan portraiture), 75-89 (Augustan female portraiture and freedmen portraits), 113-117 (legacy of Augustan art) and Ch. 4, 171-179 (Flavian portraiture)


Kellum (1994): garden fresco; Kleiner (1992): Ch. 3: 123-141 (Julio-Claudian portraiture); Stevenson (1998), honorific nude portrait statues; Strong (1988): 44-47 (late Republican sculpture), 63-71 (late Republican wall painting), 75-80 and 84-88 (Augustan sculpture and portraiture), 94-101 (Augustan-1st AD wall painting), 110-114 (Julio-Claudian portraiture), 135-137 (Flavian portraiture); Zanker (1988), 5-11 (Republican portraits)


Oral Reports:

9. The Terme ruler (bronze portrait statue)

10. The "General of Tivoli" (marble portrait statue)

11. Garden Fresco from the villa at Prima Porta



9. Tues. Mar. 19




Meeting Place:



Required Reading:







Suggested reading:


Monuments and Patrons from Nero to the Flavians

Colosseum valley, Flavian Imperial Fora

*N.B. monuments that feature in the term paper are analyzed in this class


Metro stop Colosseo (B line): by Roman sarcophagus recycled as a fountain (to the left as you exit, past newspaper stand)


Coarelli (2007): 176-186 (intro Esquiline Hill, Domus Aurea), 158-160 (intro Colosseum Valley), 164-172 (Colosseum, Ludus Magnus), 125-128 (T Peace), 113-115 (F Transistorium); Kleiner (1992): 135-136 (intro Nero), 167-173 (intro Civil War of 68-69 and Flavian Dynasty), 179-81 (sculptural display T Peace), and 192-194 (Forum T)

Stambaugh (1988): Ch. 5 ("Rome under the Emperors)," esp. pp. 67-75


Anderson, J. (1982): T Peace and F Transistorium; Claridge (1988): 15-17 (history), 290-292 (Domus Aurea), 276-284 (Colosseum and Ludus Magnus), 290-292 (Domus Aurea), 276-284 (Colosseum and Ludus Magnus), 153-157 (T Peace, F Transistorium); Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), pp. 227-240 (amphitheaters); Noreña (2003); T of Peace; Stambaugh (1988): Ch. 14 (Roman Holidays); Stamper (2005): Ch. 9 ("Temples and Fora of the Flavian Emperors"); Strong (1988): 122-125 (Domus Aurea); Ward Perkins (1981), 56-61 (Domus Aurea) and 63-84 (Flavians) and Ch 4 ("Materials and Methods: The Roman Architectural Revolution"); Welch, K. (2007), 147-62 (Domus Aurea and Colosseum); Elsner (1988): Ch. 3 ("Art and Imperial Power")











10. Tues. Mar. 26



Meeting Place:


Required Reading:




Suggested reading:









Required Reading:






Suggested reading:


Monuments and Patrons from Nero to the Flavians, cont.

Flavian Roman Forum valley


Roman Forum entrance on Via dei Fori Imperiali


Coarelli (2007):  66-67 (T Vespasian and Titus), 97-88 (Arch of Titus); Kleiner (1992): 183-190 (Arch of Titus); Stambaugh (1988): Ch. 5 ("Rome under the Emperors)," esp. pp. 67-75


Davies 2000: 19-27, 67-71, 142-48 (Arch of Titus); Stamper (2005): Ch. 9 ("Temples and Fora of the Flavian Emperors"); Strong (1988): 127-132 (esp. Arch of Titus); Thomas (2004): Equus Domitiani and Domitan patronage R Forum area; Elsner (1988): Ch. 3 ("Art and Imperial Power")

*Discussion of Term Paper: remember to bring Guidelines*


Trajan's Forum Complex

Trajan's Forum Square, Basilica Ulpia, Column of Trajan, Markets of Trajan


Coarelli (2007): 115-125 (Trajan's forum complex, Trajan's markets); Kleiner (1992): 207-212 (intro to Trajan; portraiture of Trajan and Plotina) and 212-223 (sculpture in Trajan's Forum complex); Stambaugh (1988): Ch. 5 ("Rome under the Emperors," esp. pp. 75-85), Ch. 7 ("City Government," esp. pp. 114-122) and Ch. 9 ("The Commercial City")


Claridge (1988): 17-25 (history), 161-172 (Trajan's forum complex and markets); Clarke, (2003), 28-41 (Trajan's forum complex); Davies (1997) and Davies (2000): 127-135 (column of Trajan); Elsner (1998), Ch. 3 ("Art and Imperial Power"); Packer  (2001): Trajan Forum complex (see for plans and reconstructions); Stamper (2005): Ch. 10 ("The Forum Traiani"); Strong (1988): 141-153 (Trajan's forum complex); Ward Perkins (1981): 84-95 (Trajan's patronage in Rome) and Ch. 4 ("Materials and Methods: The Roman Architectural Revolution)

Oral Reports:

12. Trajan's Column

13. Trajan's Markets

11. Tues. Apr. 3



Meeting Place:


Required Reading:






Suggested reading:


Imperial re-presentation in the 2nd century AD

Trajanic, Hadrianic and Antonine Portraiture /2nd century architectural reliefs


Capitoline Hill by statue of Marcus Aurelius


Kleiner (1992): 237-42 (intro to Hadrian; portraiture Hadrian and Sabina), 253-56 (Arco di Portogallo Reliefs and Adventus Relief), 261-63 (legacy Trajanic and Hadrianic art), 267-80 (intro Antonines and Antonine portraiture), 283-85 (intro Antonine State Reliefs and Hadrianeum reliefs), 288-95 (Marcus Aurelius Reliefs)


Elsner (1998): Ch. 3 (Art and Imperial Power); Strong (1988): 159-62 (Trajanic portraiture), 171-82 (Hadrianic portraiture and relief sculpture), 200-01 (Aurelian relief panels), 211-14 (Antonine portraiture)


*Quiz 6 IN CLASS: Trajan's Forum Complex


Oral Reports:

14. Portraiture of Trajan (bust portrait on view in Capitoline museums may serve as example)

15. Portraiture of Hadrian (bust portrait on view in Capitoline museums may serve as example )

16. Bronze equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius

17. Arco di Portogallo reliefs


12. Tues. Apr. 10



Meeting Place:


Required Reading:





Suggested reading:










Required Reading:




Suggested reading:

The monumentalization of the Campus Martius in the 2nd century

Pantheon, Hadrianeum, Column of M. Aurelius


Fountain in front of the Pantheon


Coarelli (2007): 260-66, esp. 266 (intro Campus Martius), 286-89 (Pantheon), 291-93 (T Hadrian), 296-99 (columns M. Aurelius and A. Pius); Kleiner (1992): 283-85 (Hadrianeum), 295-301 (column M. Aurelius); Stambaugh (1988): Ch. 5 ("Rome under the Emperors"), esp. 77-85


 Claridge: 16-20 (history) and 193-98 (column M. Aurelius), 199--206 (T Hadrian, Pantheon); Clarke, (2003): Ch. 2, esp. 42-53 (column M. Aurelius comp. to column Trajan); Davies (2000): 34-48, 79-83 and 158-171 (Mausoleum Hadrian, Pantheon, columns A. Pius and M. Aurelius); Elsner (1998): Ch. 3 (Art and Imperial Power); Stamper (2005): Ch. 11 (Pantheon) and 212-14 (Hadrianeum); Strong (1988): 206-11 (Column M. Aurelius); Ward-Perkins (1981): Ch 4 ("Materials and Methods: The Roman Architectural Revolution) and 111-18 (Pantheon)


Imperial portraiture from Septimius Severus to Constantine

Kleiner (1992): 316-29 (intro to Severans and Severan portraiture), 357-384 (intro. to 3rd cent. and 3rd cent. portraiture), 433-444 (Constantinian portraiture)


Strong (1988): 228 (Severan portraiture), 250-255 and 264-5 (third century portraiture), 264-266 (Tetrarchs), 278-280 (Constantinian portraiture); Wright (1987): Constantinian portraiture; Elsner (1998): Ch. 3 (Art and Imperial Power)

*Quiz 7 TAKE HOME DUE: Hadrianic and Antonine Portraits and Architectural reliefs

Oral Reports:

18. Column of Marcus Aurelius

19. Portraiture of Constantine (one of the two colossal heads on view in Capitoline museums may serve as examples)


13. Tues. Apr. 17





Meeting Place:


Required Reading:







Suggested reading:



Monuments and Patrons in and around the Roman Forum

 2nd- 4th centuries AD

T Antoninus Pius and Faustina, T Vesta, Arch Septimius Severus, Curia Julia, decennalia base, T Divus Romulus, Basilica Nova, Arch Constantine


Roman Forum Entrance on Via dei Fori Imperiali


Coarelli (2007): 98-99 (T Venus & Roma), 92-93 (T A. Pius and Faustina), 59-60 (focus on Tetrarchic decennalia monument), 60-63 (Arch Septimius Severus), 89-91 (T Romulus),  95-97 (Basilica Maxentius), 160-163 (Arch Constantine); Kleiner (1992): 329-32 (Arch S. Severus), 413-17 (Decennalia monument), 445-55 (Arch Constantine; see also 251-53 and 288-95); Stambaugh (1988): Ch. 5 ("Rome under the Emperors"; esp. 77-85)


Claridge (1988): 17-27 (history), 107-108 (T A. Pius and Faustina), 101-102 (T Vesta), 64- 65 (late antique R Forum), 75-76 (Arch S. Severus), 70-72 (Curia), 88-89 (honorary columns), 109-111 (T Divus Romulus), 115-116 (Basilica Nova), 113-115 (T Venus and Roma), 272-76 (Arch Constantine); Clarke, (2003): Ch. 2, esp. 53-67 (Arches of S. Severus and Constantine); Elsner (1998): Ch. 3 (Art and Imperial Power); Marlowe (2006): Arch Constantine; Strong (1988): 218-222 (Severan reliefs), 264-266 (Tetrarchs), 276-278 (Arch Constantine); Ward-Perkins (1981): 426-430 (Basilica Nova, T Divus Romulus, Arch Constantine); Wilson Jones (2000): Arch Constantine


**********TERM PAPER DUE***********


Friday April 20

(Study day)


Meeting Place:




***Review session for Final Exam***



Remember to bring review sheet!

Please also come to class with questions based on your revision for which you would like clarification or further details



April 24




Meeting Place


********Final EXAM**********

9:30-11:30 AM


N.B. The class schedule and the readings are subject to change at the discretion of the professor. Students will be informed of a change by notification in class, on Blackboard, via e-mail, or via Carla Mollica.


Suggested Reading: Library Stacks, Internet

· Aicher, P. J. (2006), Rome Alive: a source-guide to the Ancient City   [DG13 .A37 2004]

· Anderson, J. (1982) "Domitian, the Argiletum and the Temple of Peace" American Journal of Archaeology 86.1: 101-110. [JSTOR]

· Barton, E. (2007) "The scandal of the Arena" Representations 27 (1989): 1-36 [JSTOR]

· Beard, M. (2007), The Roman Triumph[DG89 .B43 2007]

· Beard, M., North, J.A. and Price S.R.F. (1998), Religions of Rome 2vols. [BL802 .B43 1998]

· Boardman, J.ed. (2001), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World. [DG231 .O84 2001]

· Boatwright, M.T., Gargola, D.J. and Talbert, R. (2004)The Romans: from Village to Empire. [DG209 .B58 2004]

· Boyle, A.J. and  Dominik, W.J. eds. (2003), Flavian Rome: culture, image, text. [DG286 .F53 2003]

· Carter, M.J. (2006/2007) "Gladiatorial combat:the rules of engagement" Classical Journal 102.2: 97-114 [JSTOR]

· Clarke, J. (2003) Art in the Lives of Ordinary Romans: Visual Representation and Non-Elite Viewers in Italy, 100 B.C.–A.D. 315 [N72 .S6 C58 2003]

· Coarelli, F. (2001) The Colosseum.  [DG68.1 .C6513 2001]

· Connoly, P. and Dodge, H. (1998) The Ancient City: life in classical Athens & Rome [DE59 .C59 1998]

· Cooley, A. and Pormann, P.E. (2009) The first emperor and the queen of inscriptions: Augustus in his own words. Classics in Discussion, University of Warwick, Dept. of Classics, Jan. 2010: www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/classics/podcast

· Coulston, J. and Dodge, H. eds. (2000) Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City [DG63 .A57 2000]

· D’Ambra, E. ed. (1993) Roman Art in Context. [N5760 .R64]

· Davies, P. (1997) "The politics of perpetuation: Trajan's Column and the art of commemoration" American Journal of Archaeology 101.1: 41-65. [JSTOR]

· Davies, P. (2000) Death and the Emperor: Roman imperial funerary monuments, from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius [NB1875 .D38 2000]

· Elsner, J. (1998) Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph [N 5760 .E47 1998]

· Flower, H. I. (2004) The Cambridge Companion to the RomanRepublic [DG235 .C36 2004]

· Hannestad, N. (1986) Roman Art and Imperial Policy. [N5763 .H3513 1988]

· Holliday, P.J. (1990): "Time, history, and ritual on the Ara Pacis Augustae" Art Bulletin 72/4, 542-57 [JSTOR]

· Kellum, B. (1994) "The construction of landscape in Augustan Rome: the Garden Room at the villa ad Gallinas" Art Bulletin 76.2: 212-24. [JSTOR]

· Kellum, B. (1997) "Concealing/revealing: gender and the play of meaning in the monuments of Augustan Rome " in T. Habinek and A. Schiesaro (eds), The Roman Cultural Revolution, 158-181 [DG 279 .R618 1997]

· Kuttner, A. (1995):"Republican Rome looks at Pergamon" Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 97, 157-78.[JSTOR]

· Ling, R. (1991) Roman Painting. [ND120 .L56 1991]

· MacDonald, W. (1976) The Pantheon: design, meaning, and progeny. [NA323 .M34 1976]

· MacDonald, W. (1982) The Architecture of the Roman Empire (2 vols). [NA 310 .M2 1982]

· Marlowe, E. (2006) "Framing the Sun: the Arch of Constantine and the Roman cityscape" Art Bulletin 88.2: 223-42 [JSTOR]

· Noreña, C.F. (2003) "Medium and message in Vespasian’s Templum Pacis" Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 48: 25-43. [JSTOR]

· Packer, J. (1997) The Forum of Trajan in Rome. A Study of the Monuments [NA 312 .P23 1997]

· Patterson, J. (1992), "The City of Rome: from Republic to Empire" Journal of Roman Studies 82: 186-215 [JSTOR]

· Platner, S.B. and Ashby, T. (2002 repr.)Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome [DG16.P685 2002 (Ref.)]

· Rose, C.B. (1990) “Princes” and Barbarians on the Ara Pacis" American Journal of Archaeology 94.3: 453-67 [JSTOR]

· Rose, C.B. (2005) "The Parthians in Augustan Rome" American Journal of Archaeology 109.1: 21-75 [JSTOR]

· Scarre, C. (1995) The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. [G 1033 .S28 1995]

· Sear, F. (1982) Roman Architecture. [NA310 .S44 1983]

· Shelton, J.-A. (1998) As the Romans Did. A Sourcebook in Roman Social History [HN 10 .R7 S45 1998]

· Stamper, J. (2005)The Architecture of Roman Temples. The Republic to the Middle Empire [NA323 .S73 2005]

· Stevenson, T. (1998) "The ‘problem’ with nude honorific statuary and portraits in late republican and Augustan Rome" Greece and Rome 45.1: 45-69. [JSTOR]

· Strong, D. (1988) Roman Art, 2nd ed. [N 5760 .S68 1988]

· Thomas, M. L. (2004), "(Re)locating Domitian's Horse of Glory: The "Equus Domitiani" and Flavian Urban Design" Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 49: 21-46  [JSTOR]

· Wallace-Hadrill, A. (1993) Augustan Rome.  London: Bristol Classical. [DG279 .W35. 1993]

· Ward-Perkins, J.B. (1981) Roman Imperial Architecture [NA310 .W34 1994 ]

· Welch, K. (2007)The Roman Amphitheatre: from its origins to the Colosseum [NA313 .W45 2007]

· Wilson Jones, M. (2000) "Genesis and mimesis: the design of the Arch of Constantine in Rome" Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 59.1: 50-77 [JSTOR]

· Wiseman, T.P. (2004) The Myths of Rome. [BL803 .W57 2004]

· Woolf, G., ed. (2003) Cambridge Illustrated History of the Roman World. [DG209 .C36 2003]

· Wright, D.H. (1987) "The true face of Constantine the Great" Dumbarton Oaks Papers 41: 493-507 [JSTOR]

· Zanker, P. (1988), The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus [N5760 .Z36 1988]. Excerpts also available at: http://www.uark.edu/ua/metis2/zanker/zanker_txt.html and http://www.uark.edu/ua/metis2/zanker/zanker_txt2.html

· Ziokowski (1988) "Mummius' Temple of Hercules Victor and the Round Temple on the Tiber" Phoenix 42/4: 309-33 [JSTOR]


INTERNET image resources

· Vroma image archive: www.vroma.org accurate and reliable digital archive of Ancient Greek and Roman artworks; can be downloaded in jpg format

· ARTSTOR:  A digital library of nearly one million images that can be viewed on-line (in full, in zoom detail); can be stored on-line in personal folders; and can be downloaded in jpg format

· Rome Reborn:  www.romereborn.virginia.edu (3D reconstructions of ancient Rome)

· Digital Roman Forum Project http://dlib.etc.ucla.edu/projects/Forum/ (Good discussions and bibliography of monuments in the Forum Romanum.)

· Ara Pacis Augustae: http://cdm.reed.edu/ara-pacis (good images and some basic information on the monument)