Loyola University Chicago

John Felice Rome Center

RoSt 390 / PAX 397 - Human Rights: The View from Rome


Theory, actuality and application of select human rights issues in the Mediterranean region as viewed from the perspective of Rome. This course includes 24 hours of required practical engagement with the local community.


There are three primary themes to this class:

  • Contemporary moral philosophy
  • A review of current social issues within Italy and the Mediterranean region
  • Self-reflection anchored in one’s experience from serving in the community

A primary theme of the course is an analysis of various contemporary philosophies pertaining to moral development. In essence, a driving question will be for each student to develop his or her own perspective on what constitutes a moral society in a post-modern world.

A second theme is to gain a basic level of understanding of current pressing social problems facing Italy. Italy is situated in a geographic and political nexus where debates converge from across the Mediterranean, the Middle East, the Balkans and North Africa. A few of the topics to be addressed by guest lecturers will be: the role of Islam in Europe, the reception of migrants and refugees, and racism encountered by many migrants upon arrival into Europe.

A third and central theme is for students to understand their service work on a personal level. In the Jesuit tradition of working to morally educate the whole person, class sessions will incorporate readings and creative methods from a range of religious traditions and academic disciplines allowing students to reflect on their strengths, weaknesses, and personal worldview. Sessions will include a reflective exercise and requires that students fully participate. This is not a class in which one can sit and solely listen; active participation is expected. A reoccurring question throughout this course is how one can gain from his/her service experience in order to grow as an individual. As a result of one’s service work and the reflection work (i.e. readings, class exercises, and journal work) it is envisioned that each student will become more effective change agents in the long term. At a minimum, an expected outcome is that each student’s moral values be challenged as a result of his/her service work in Rome.


Course Structure:

The course will include lectures, class discussions and student presentations. Films, acquired from a variety of sources, will enhance the readings in the course. There will frequently be three components to each class discussion.

  1. A brief introduction to the key moral philosophers/ human rights academics which will provide the backdrop to class discussion.
  2. An analysis on a current political or social issue impacting the Mediterranean region, often including a presentation by a guest speaker.
  3. Following a short break, the final part of each class will be a reflective session in which students analyze their work in the community.

Each student will be placed with a Rome based non-governmental Organization (NGO) which is the equivalent of a non-profit agency in the United States.


Course Expectations:

Ø  The class will meet a total of 13 times during the Semester.

Ø  The final two class sessions may require that students remain a little longer in order that all students are given ample time to present their final project.

Ø  In addition to in-class requirements, students will serve a minimum of 24 hours in the community. This does not include travel to and from the service site.

Ø  Beginning in the second week of class students will start their service work. Students who have not begun their service work by week three will be encouraged to withdraw from the class.

Ø  The nature of the service requirement demands high levels of maturity and consistency from the Rome Center workers.

Ø  A map will be provided during your first week of studies and you are to find your service site independent of Professor Stapleton.

Ø  Excuses for not appearing at your service site will require a note from a medical doctor.



  1. Acquisition of contemporary moral philosophy/ academic writers on human rights
  2. A review of current social issues within Italy and the Mediterranean region
  3. Self-reflection anchored in one’s experience while serving in the community


Theme 1:

Contemporary moral philosophy

·         To compare and contrast the research and teachings of contemporary moral philosophers/ human rights academics

Theme 2:

Review of contemporary social issues within Italy and the European Union, with particular attention to the Mediterranean region.

·         To learn about Italian and Mediterranean movements for social change.

Theme 3:

Self-reflection anchored in one’s experience from serving in the community.

·         To analyze some of the philosophical roots of community service specifically in light of the Jesuit vision of education.

·         To move beyond the intellectualisation of social issues and reflect on the potential for personal and emotional growth as a result of one’s service experience.


Schedule 1:

Week 1: 16 January

Topic: class description and early concepts of human rights


  • The History of Human Rights, The Zeitgeist Movement, January 2010

Reading to be discussed in class:

·         Ishay, Micheline (2007) Introduction, Human Rights: Historical and Contemporary Controversies, The Human Rights Reader: Major Political Essays, Speeches and Documents From Ancient Times to the Present, New York: Routledge, pp. xxi-xxviii

·         Ibid, pp. 475-481

Additional optional audio-visual material

·         Lecture 13: The UN, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Geneva Conventions, University of California, Berkeley, 2010, Prof. Thomas Laqueur


Week 2: 23 January

Topic: Introduction to universal human rights

Audio-visual material

·         Universal Declaration on Human Rights (Human Rights Action Center) (5 mins)

·         Thinking Allowed: Criminology Conference, Leicester, Hate Crime, September 2010, BBC

Additional optional audio-visual material

·         Universal Declaration on Human Rights (Amnesty International) (20 mins)

Reading to be discussed in class:

·         Ishay, Micheline (2007) Introduction, Human Rights: Historical and Contemporary Controversies, The Human Rights Reader: Major Political Essays, Speeches and Documents From Ancient Times to the Present, New York: Routledge, pp. 389-390, 392-402, 418-421

·         UN Declaration on Human Rights, December 10, 1948

·         Italy, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, 11 April 2011, viewed on 30 October 2011, http://www.state.gov


Week 3: 30 January

Journal Entry #1 due via email before noon today

Topic: Migration: flight to fortress Europe


·         The Battle For Attica Square - Greece (20mins) (Journeyman pictures)

·         Euronews no comment - refugees in Libya (2 mins)

Additional optional audio-visual material

·         Invisible: Illegal in Europe, (88 mins)

·         Human Right Watch (2009) No Refuge, Migrants in Greece, HRW: New York (5 mins)

·         BBC (2009) Italy and Libya Migrant Policy, BBC: London (20 mins)

Reading to be discussed in class:

·         UNHCR (2009) Providing refugee protection 2009, pp21-25,Geneva: UNHCR

·         Maiese, Michelle (2003) Human Rights Violations, Beyond Intractability, Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado: Boulder

·         Jesuit Refugee Service (2004) JRS Position on Proposals to Create Transit Camps in North Africa for Migrants / Asylum-Seekers. www.jrs.net

·         Human Rights Watch (2009) Pushed Back, Pushed Around, Italy’s Forced Return of Boat Migrants and Asylum Seekers, Libya’s Mistreatment of Migrants and Asylum Seekers, A Summary, pp. 1-17, New York: HRW

·         Jesuit Refugee Service et al (2010)    , Press Release, Brussels, 21 October (translation from French)

·         UN Special Rapporteur on Torture presents preliminary findings on his Mission to Greece, 29 October 2010, UNHCHR: Geneva


Week 4: 6 February

Journal Entry #2 due via email before noon today

Topic: Migrants and refugees, who are our new neighbours?

Guest Speaker: Chiara Peri, Centro Astalli (Jesuit Refugee Service in Italy)


·         Migrants on Calais streets after 'jungle' camp closes (Guardian Newspaper, 25 September 2009), 4 mins

·         Rome's homeless refugees at the heart of European law row, (Guardian Newspaper, 7 October 2011), 10 mins

Readings to be discussed in class:

·         Médicine Sans Frontière (2010) Over the Wall, a tour of Italy migrant centres (abstract)

·         Al-Azar. (2006) Italian Immigration Policies: The Metaphor of Water, Bologna Center Journal of International Affairs, Spring 2006, Bologna: Bologna Center Journal of International Affairs

·         Human Rights Watch, Treatment in Detention”, 16 December 2009, viewed 5 September 2010, <http://www.hrw.org>


Week 5: 13 February

Topic: Racism and xenophobia

(Time will also be set aside during this class for an in-depth review of service sites)


  • Italy – The Italian Solution, Journeyman Pictures, July 2009, 20 mins
  • Excerpt of the film El Ejido, the law of profit (October 2007), 3 mins
  • Fortress Europe, Independent Sources, City University TV, Channel 75, New York, excerpts (Nov 2010) 20 mins

Readings to be discussed in class:

·         European Commission (2006) European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance: Third Report on Italy, 16 May 2006, Strasbourg, pp.6-7, 20-24

·         McIntosh, Peggy. (1989), White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Backpack, Peace and Freedom, July/August 1989, pp.10-12, Washington DC: Women's International League for Peace and Freedom

·         “Italy takes a hard line on Migrants.” International Herald Tribune. October 4, 2004

·         Di Pasquale L (2008) ENAR Shadow Report, 2009/2010, Racism and Discrimination in Italy, Brussels: ENAR, pp. 4-6, 39-42

·         Human Rights Watch, 2009 a Bad Year for Migrants, Deaths, Labor Exploitation, Violence, and Poor, 19 December 2009, viewed 5 September 2010, <http://www.hrw.org> excerpts pp. 15-16, 19-20

·         Ariel David et al, Migrants Riot in Southern Italian Town, Associated Press, 8 January 2010, viewed 5 September 2010, <http://www.newsvine.com>

·         Legge, Anne-Sophie, African Migrants Flee Italian Town as Pope Condemns Violence, 10 January 2010. AFP, viewed 5 September 2010, www.google.com

·         Human Rights Watch, European Court: Landmark Ruling on Racial and Religious Exclusion Judgment says, 22 December 2009, viewed 15 September 2010, <http://www.hrw.org>

·         Human Rights Watch, Bosnia’s Political Ban on Jews, Roma Discriminatory,  22 December 2009, viewed 15 September 2010, <http://www.hrw.org>

·         Human Rights Watch, Switzerland: Minaret Ban Violates Rights Decision Reflects Rising Intolerance against Muslims in Europe, 4 December 2009, viewed 15 September 2010,<http://www.hrw.org>


Week 6: 20 February

Journal Entry #3 due via email before noon today

Topic: Rom and Roma (“Rom” is the correct terminology for gypsies)

Guest speaker: to be confirmed


  • I am Roma. What can I do? IES Rome/Audiodoc, 2010, 25 mins

Additional optional audio-visual material

  • Fanny Ardant on Europe’s treatment of the Roma people, guardian.co.uk, (4:30 mins)

Readings to be discussed in class:

·         European Commission (2006) European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance: Third Report on Italy, 16 May 2006, Strasbourg, pp. 6, 22, 24-29

·         Goldston James A. The Struggle for Roma Rights: Arguments that Have Worked, Human Rights Quarterly, Volume 32, Number 2, May 2010, pp. 311-325

·         Open Society Institute (2008) Security a la Italiana: Fingerprinting, Extreme Violence and Harassment of Roma in Italy, Brussels: OSI. pp.13-34

·         End Europe’s ugly racism towards Roma, The International Herald Tribune, 1 March 2005.

·         ENARgy (2010) The Situation of the Roma in Europe: Challenges and ways forward, Issue 31, pp. 10-13, European Network Against Racism: Brussels

·         European Roma Rights Center (2010) Urgent response needed to recurrent evictions of Roma in Milan, Italy, Letter to the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Adequate Housing and the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 5 May 2010, ERRC: Budapest

·         European Roma Rights Center (2011) Measured Response to Roma Housing Needed in Rome, Letter to the Mayor of Rome Gianni Alemanno, Prefect of Rome Giuseppe Pecoraro, Prefect Francesco Paolo Tronca, and City Councillor for Social Policy Sveva Belviso, 7 February 2011, ERRC: Budapest

·         European Roma Rights Center (2000) Campland: Racial Segregation of Roma in Italy, Country Report Series No. 9, October 2000, ERRC: Budapest, pp. 87-93, 107-109

Please Note:    Time will be devoted during this class period for reviewing the criteria for final assignments.


Week 7: 27 February

Topic: Europe and Islam

Guest Speaker: to be confirmed


  • Hussain N (2009) Muslims at Home in Europe, 4 December 2009, Open Society Foundation (3 mins)
  • Europe, Islam’s new frontier, National Public Radio, December 2004 (6 mins)

Additional optional audio-visual material

  • An Islamic History of Europe (2005), 99 mins, excerpts from a BBC4 documentary

Readings to be discussed in class:

·         Rosenthal Elisabeth A Poor Fit for an Immigrant: After 20 Years of Hard Work in Italy, Still Not Italian, 1 January 2006. The New York Times.

·         Le Quesne, Nicholas  (2001) Islam in Europe: A Changing Faith, Time Magazine, 24 December 2001

·         Bhabha, Jacqueline (1998) "Get Back to Where You Once Belonged": Identity, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Europe, Human Rights Quarterly, Volume 20, No. 3, pp. 592-627

·         Ennaji M (2010) Moroccan Migrants in Europe and Islamophobia, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 14-20, Duke University Press: Durham

·         Barbieri W (1999) Group Rights and the Muslim Diaspora, Human Rights Quarterly 21.4, pp. 907-926, Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore

Please note: All paper topics are to be confirmed by this date. A two paragraph description is due at the start of class.


5 March Spring break, no class


Week 8: 12 March

Journal Entry    due via email before noon today

Topic: Moral Development; what makes for a ‘civil’ society?


·         Is there a better way to judge the development of a country than to measure its GDP? Interview Martha Nussbaum, BBC Thing Allowed, July 2011 (28 mins)

Readings to be discussed in class:

·         Nussbaum, Martha (1997) Capabilities and Human Rights, Fordham Law Review, Volume 66, Issue 2, Article 2, pp. 273-300, Fordham Law Review: New York, http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/flr/vol66/iss2/

·         Kaldor, Mary (2003) Civil Society and Accountability, Journal of Human Development, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 5-27, Taylor & Francis Group: ISSN 1469-9516 online/03/010005-23

·         Moon, Susan (2004) On Beggars, Not Turning Away, The Practice of Engaged Buddhism, Boston: Shambala Press, pp. 5-12

·         Garrett Dr, Jan (2008) Martha Nussbaum on Capabilities and Human Rights, viewed on 5 September at http://www.wku.edu/~jan.garrett/ethics/nussbaum.htm


Week 9: 19 March

Topic: Models of Social Action


·         The resistance: On the deportation frontline , (7 mins)

Reading to be discussed in class:

·         Sontag, Susan, Courage and Resistance, The Nation, 5 May 2003, viewed 10 September 2010, <http://www.thenation.com>

·         llich, Ivan SJ, To Hell with Good Intentions, an address to the Conference on InterAmerican Student Projects (CIASP) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, on 20April 1968.

·         Corrie, Rachel, Rachel’s War, emails to the friends and family of a Peace Corp activist published by the Guardian Newspaper on 18 March 2003, viewed 10 September 2010, <http://www.guardian.co.uk>

·         Lakey, George (2005). ‘Pushing Our Thinking About People Power: three applications of non-violent action.’ TFC Training for Change Website; viewed on 15 September 2010, http://www.trainingforchange.org

·         Lakey, George (2004) Strategizing for a Living Revolution, viewed on 10 December 2010 at http://www.turning-the-tide.org/files/living%20revolution%20strategy.pdf

·         Kretzman, John (1995) Building Communities From the Inside Out, Chicago: The Asset Based Community Institute.

·         Putnam, Robert (1995) Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital, Journal of Democracy Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 65-78, viewed on 10 January 2011 at http://www.saddleback.edu/faculty/agordon/documents/Bowling_Alone.pdf


Week 10: 26 March

Journal Entry #5 due via email before noon today

Topic: Religion and Social Change

Guest speaker: Dr Janet Fine, Director School of Education Rome Programs, Loyola University Chicago


·         Nolan, Albert (1985) The Service of the Poor and Spiritual Growth, Justice Papers, No. 6., London: Catholic Institute for International Relations, p. 3-11.

·         Arrupe Pedro SJ (1973) Men and Women for Others, Education for Social Justice and Social Action Today, address to the Tenth International Congress of Jesuit Alumni of Europe, Valencia, Spain

·         Address of His Holiness John Paul II to The Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations Organization, 5 October 1995. Vatican City. <http://www.vatican.va>

·         Address of His Holiness Benedict XVI to the Members of the General Assembly of the United Nations Organization, 18 April 2008. Vatican City. <http://www.vatican.va>


Week 11: 2 April

Topic: Glocal Movements

Guest Speaker:

Cristina Mattiello, local human rights activist


  • The Luckiest Peanut in the World (2002/ 8 Minutes)
  • The End of Poverty, excerpts of the documentary on Democracy Now

Reading to be discussed in Class:

  • Krishnamurti, Jiddu (1996) Preface and Part 2, Insights into everyday life, Total Freedom: The Essential Krishnamurti, Eds. Mary Cadogan et al, pp. 59-66
  • Sachs, Jeffrey (2005). ‘The End of Poverty.’ Time Magazine. 14, March 2005


Week 12: 16 April

Journal Entry #6 due via email before noon today

All final papers are due

Final Paper: individual presentations


Week 13: April (date to be decided)

Final Paper: individual presentations



A. Class Participation 50 points

B. Three exams 60 points

B. Community Service 100 points

C. Journal Entry / Collected weekly via email 90 points (15 points per journal entry)

D. Final Paper & Presentation: 200 points

Students may choose between a social justice topic, a client narrative, or one’s moral autobiography.

500 total points (2x)

A  = 957 up

A- = 914 up

B+ = 871 up

B  = 828 up

B- = 785 up

C+ = 742 up

C  = 699 up

C- = 656 up

D+ = 613 up



A. Class Participation:  50 points

Attendance will be taken every class period. Students are expected to attend all class periods. Those who arrive more than ten minutes late will not be counted for the day.

B. Three exams:  60 points

The exams will be given during the course of the Semester. The days in which the exams will be given will not be announced in advance. All are expected to come to class having read the material for the week and be willing to discuss the content. Each exam will ask a few simple questions related to the day’s readings. Those who have come to class having pre-read the day’s readings will have no problems answering the questions.

C. Community Service Placement Site: 100 Points
Students choose a nonprofit (non-governmental) organization that is working on issues of social change. They will spend 24 – 30 hours at the site during the semester. They will plug into this agency as a volunteer. Students will get to know the agency’s work, mission, etc.

Service Sites: (see class reader for details)

Missionaries of Charity, Sant’Egidio Soup Kitchen, International Youth Action for Peace

Joel Nafuma Refugee Center, Jesuit Refugee Service Rome Outreach Center, etc.

During class periods, students may be asked to discuss their service learning experiences. Typically, students will be asked to describe their specific on-site activities and relate their experiences to the topic being discussed in class. Students are expected to participate in those discussions.

While volunteering at a local service organization, students will be expected to act in a responsible manner. Each student must keep scheduled work hours and complete assigned duties. Students also are expected to maintain good working relationships with supervisors and peers. Conduct that is deemed unacceptable to the agency supervisor may result in the student being dismissed from that placement and from the course. In the unlikely event a student were to not be present at his/her agency on a particular week it is mandatory that he/she send an email or place a phone call to the agency describing the purpose of one’s absence. Students will not be excused due to individual travel needs. Failure to appear due to an illness will require a note from the campus doctor. Failure to appear at your site during your assigned time reflects poorly on the entire Loyola community.


D. Journal Entry: 120 Points

Students will write fortnightly journals on this experience (15 points each). Each journal will be prompted by a question or statement from the class curriculum and will touch upon at least one of the following topics:

·         volunteer activities

·         experiences related to the readings and discussions from class

·         anything else a student might think is important.

Journals must be submitted via email and may be brief. Each journal entry must be a minimum of 200 words and no longer than 800 words. Please submit your journal no later than NOON on the day which it is due. Send your journal entry to Professor Stapleton. Any journal received past the noon deadline will automatically be marked down by 50%.


E. Topical Paper, Oral Histories or one’s Moral Autobiography: (200 Points)

A student may choose one of three options for his / her final paper. Option one is to develop a social justice topic area which has been discussed in class. Students are free to choose a topic (to be approved by Professor Stapleton) examples might include: Rom lifestyles, immigration, the future of Islam in Europe, human rights and recent immigrants, charity versus justice models of change, the status of the no global movement, racism in Italy, etc. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list.

A second option exist allowing students to interview individuals they have spent time with during the course of their service work. The interviews are to capture the oral histories of immigrants in Italy. The final paper will require that the oral histories are augmented by at least five sources other than readings from class. In essence the interviews cannot stand alone; each oral narrative will need background information to place the story in a broader context in relation to topics that had been reviewed in class.

Finally, students will be given a third option which is to write a “Moral Autobiography.” Guidelines will be provided explaining how this process will unfold. It is recommended that the Moral Autobiography contains background information on one’s family, education, etc – dimensions of difference. The body of the paper will explore how one’s life might change or deepen based on the teachings of a particular contemporary philosopher or spiritual teacher. The final aspect of your Moral Autobiography needs to articulate your vision. Due to the confidential nature of your story the actual classroom presentation may be slightly abbreviated and will most likely not reflect the final paper to be submitted for your grade. Once again, the writing must be grounded in academic sources from the classroom readings, discussions and elsewhere.

On 20 February, an outline will be provided offering guidance on the format for the final paper. All topics for final papers must be approved no later than Monday, 27 February. Final papers are due 16 April. Each student will be required to deliver a 15 minute presentation on his/her topic on 16 April, and possibly another day that week. All papers must use primary and secondary sources. Wikipedia is NOT considered a source but may be useful for directing you towards primary and secondary sources.

The final paper must be 3000 words in length (no longer than 3100 or shorter than 2900). It is essential that all quotes in the text are referenced properly, using an established style of referencing (e.g. Harvard style, APA style – see the “Referencing Style” information in the final pages of your course reader).[1] As new texts are published or come to the attention of the lecturer, they may replace older or less relevant material. Nevertheless, the overall thrust of the course will remain the same.