Loyola University Chicago

John Felice Rome Center

CLST 395 Topography of Rome

Spring 2014

Loyola University

John Felice Rome Center

The Topography of Ancient Rome (CLST/ROST 395)

Spring 2014

Tues. 9:30-12:30


Prof. Sharon Salvadori

Office Hours by appointment

Email: ssalvadori@luc.edu

Cell phone: 339 545 9356


Course Description and Objectives

     This is an upper level survey course on the topography of the city of Rome from its origins (c. 753 B.C.) to the reign of Constantine (312-337 AD). The definition and development of urban space are examined in the context of their political, religious, military and social functions and meanings. Monumental art and architecture are the main “primary sources” for this examination of the built environment and visual culture of Ancient Rome. The primary aim of the course is to provide an in-depth familiarity and appreciation of the multifaceted nature of city in its original historical context.

     The class is taught at archeological sites and in museums in Rome. The course has a fee of 70€ per student to cover cost of tickets at sites. Please settle fee with the business office at the beginning of the semester.



  • understanding key aspects of urban layout and spatial organization in Ancient Rome
  • understanding key structural, functional and stylistic aspects of Ancient Roman art and architecture
  • ability to analyze and interpret the urban topography and development of Ancient Rome and, more specifically, the motives in the creation, use and reception of areas, neighborhoods and monuments in their original (Ancient) political, religious, and social contexts
  • skills for the critical analysis of urban topography and visual culture generally
  • familiarity with different methods of art historical analysis and terminology and the ability to deploy them successfully
  • ability to apply critical thinking and analysis generally
  • ability to select and organize material to produce a coherent and cogent argument both orally and in writing- and to do so to so respecting deadlines.
  • ability to exchange ideas and engage in discussion with peers


Course Texts

  • Coarelli, F. (2007) Rome and its Environs: An Archaeological Guide
  •  Course handbook

Required Reading Library Reserve (chapters, entries or page numbers specified in the course schedule)

  • Claridge, A. (1988) The Oxford Archaeological Guide to Rome
  • Kleiner, D.E.E. (1992) Roman Sculpture
  • Stamper, J. (2005)The Architecture of Roman Temples. The Republic to the Middle Empire

***With the exception the course handbook, all readings are listed by author and date in the course schedule

**********See also the list of Suggested Reading***********



Final grades are based on attendance, participation, 4 quizzes, 1 oral report, 2 tests, 1 final exam, and 1 term paper, as follows:


Attendance                                      required, not graded

Participation                                    5%

Quizzes                                            20%

Mid Term                                         20%

Final Exam:                                      20%

Oral Presentation                            15%

Term Paper                                      20%


Attendance (required not graded)

     All scheduled classes are mandatory. Attendance will be taken at the beginning of each class. On-site courses obviously require moving, you must therefore always be punctual at our initial meeting points (specified below in the class schedule). You should calculate 90 minutes travel time from JFRC  and this means you must be out of the door by 8:00 AM! It is your responsibility to find out where the meeting places are. You may ask me in advance, but no later than during the class the week before. I will not respond to last minute emails or phone calls. Coarelli, F. (2007) Rome and Environs. An Archaeological Guide  (your textbook!) has many useful maps to locate sites. For subway and bus lines consult www.atac. it (available in English).


Participation (5% of course grade)

     Active participation is expected of all students, but the level or amount of your engagement is graded. Although participation is only 5% of the course grade it could ensure an A rather than an A- as your final grade. Participating means coming to class having read the week’s assignment (listed in the schedule below), prepared to ask and answer questions and to share any pertinent observations. Remember too that the more you engage, the more fun the class will be not only for you but also for everyone else (me included).


Quizzes (20% of course grade)

     5 quizzes will be given in the course of the semester (the dates are inserted in the course schedule.) The quiz with the lowest score will be omitted from the final tally; the remaining 4 quizzes are therefore each worth 5% of the course grade. Each quiz will consist in a series of questions on specific areas, monument types (including individual structural or stylistic features), individual monuments or sets of monuments in Ancient Rome. They are designed to assess your knowledge of essential facts and your ability to critically interpret and asses their historical significance. You may be asked the name of an area or monument, its location, its date, its function, its patronage; you may also be asked to describe it (main physical characteristics, structural and decorative components, materials used, etc); or you may be asked to a question on some aspect of its historical significance (e.g. the possible motivations for designating an area of the city with specific functions or the intended meaning- political, religious, social aesthetic, etc.- of individual monuments). The questions will be based on material that we have already covered in class, but completing the required reading is necessary to pass each and every quiz. Answers to individual questions should always be brief: in some cases  one or two words or word or a  short phrase will suffice and no answer should require more than two or three sentences. Depending on the quiz, you will be given anywhere from 5 to 10 minutes to answer.


Mid-term (20% of course grade)

The mid-term is a take home and consists of 2 parts that must be submitted to me via email. Questions will be posted electronically a week prior to the due date. They will consist in a combination of essays (min. 800- max. 1000 words) and short answer questions (min. 300- max. 500 words).  You may and, in fact, are encouraged to brainstorm as a class, but the answers must be in your own words. To achieve a top grade (B+, A- and A) you must demonstrate that you have read a least 4 relevant titles in the "Suggested Reading." Sources must be appropriately cited in your answers (MLA style will do) and bibliography provided at the end. Like the quizzes, the midterm is designed to assess your knowledge of essential facts and your ability to critically interpret and asses their historical significance. However, whereas in the quizzes your answers to each question must be brief, the mid-term will require longer, more articulated, as well as more

discursive answers.

     Part 1 due Fri. Feb. 14 The focus is on Rome from c. 753 to c. 100 BC (Kings to Republic)

     Part 2 due Thurs. Mar. 6 The focus is on Rome from c. 100 BC to AD 14 (Late Republic to Augustus)


Final Exam (20% of the course grade)

     The exam is structured to assess your knowledge of essential facts about areas, neighborhoods, monuments, artworks in Ancient Rome and your ability to critically interpret and assess their historical significance. The exam is cumulative, although with a greater emphasis on 2nd-4th century Rome (Trajan to Constantine). You may expect material from earlier periods to show up especially in comparisons (earlier to later).

     The exam will consist in:

6 slide identifications 5 minutes each, worth 30% of your exam grade (5% each).  Name, typology, date, media, (original) location, function, and patronage must be specified as known or relevant. E.g. the Colosseum does not, strictly speaking, have a subject, but the marble friezes on the Ara Pacis do; a portrait statue of Augustus is just that, but the emperor may be depicted as young, middle-aged or old, may be dressed in civilian, priestly or military garb (or combinations...) and these kinds of visual elements must be both mentioned and described (e.g. what visual devices are employed to represent Augustus made to look youthful? what iconographic elements denote that he is officiating as a priest?). Last but not least,  you must indicate at least one reason the topographical area, monument or artwork was significant in its original historical context.  For example in addition to noting that the Colosseum was built by Vespasian on the site of the artificial lake in Nero's Domus Aurea complex, you should explain (however briefly) that the location was very significant from a symbolic (and propagandistic) point of view since it transformed imperial property destined for the private enjoyment of Nero to a public venue destined for the entertainment of all Roman citizens. Similarly, in addition describing how a portrait of Augustus depicts him as young, you should mention that all his portraits show him a young and discuss (however briefly) what message was being conveyed by this representation of " eternal" youth....An identification which lists a complete series of correct facts, but fails to discuss why they are significant, will score lower than one that is missing a few facts but which includes an assessment of historical significance.

4 slide comparisons 10 minutes each, worth 40% of the exam grade (10% each). One or more images of two sites or monuments will be shown to you. You must identify each one (again name, typology, date, media, (original) location, function, patronage, but also (and most importantly) consider them in relation to one another: i.e. discuss significant similarities and differences (often variously combining meaning, function, patronage, structural or formal components). Typically the primary significance of comparisons is rooted in historically specific (and significant) thematic connections. E.g. if the comparison consists of the garden room at Livia's villa at Prima Porta with the Ara Pacis (the Altar of Peace), the fact that the first is decorated with paintings and the second with sculpture, is less important than the fact that the imagery depicted in both expresses interrelated or similar (though not identical) concerns of the Augustan period in different viewing contexts, denoting both the pervasive and sophisticated character of Augustan visual ideology ...obviously you would mention the salient elements of that ideology...

1 essay 30 minutes, worth 30% of the exam grade. Two weeks prior to the exam (and a week before our review session), you will be given 2 essay questions accompanied by images of sites and/or monuments. One of the two will be on exam. However, the other topic will undoubtedly show up in the identifications and comparisons, so be sure to prepare for both.


Presentation (15% of course grade)

     The oral presentation consists of a 10-minute report (no more) to the class on an area, monument, artwork or historical topic.

     The presentation is intended to develop your skills in independent research, observation, interpretation, evaluation and public speaking. Developing the ability to express yourself orally in a clear, concise and effective manner is as important as the content of the presentation (content without form undermines content itself...)

     The presentation topics have been inserted in the course schedule. There will be a sign up sheet by next Tuesday. 

The presentation in class must include:

• a descriptive account of the monument/artwork

• a contextual and interpretative discussion (function, patronage, meanings, associations, impact, etc., as relevant)

• a pertinent Ancient source to be read to the class (Aicher 2006 and Shelton 1998 are two good sourcebooks)

• 2-3 questions raised by the monument, artwork or subject addressed to the class to engage them directly in your topic and so further develop it

Your presentation must clearly demonstrate that

1. you have read and understood the required reading listed on your syllabus for your topic

2. you have read and understood at least one additional academic source on your topic; the most obvious (and easiest) option is to choose a relevant publication from the "Suggested Reading" listed on your syllabus; but other pertinent books and periodicals available in the JFRC library, or available through JSTOR, MUSE and other legitimate academic publication data bases may also be used. Please be aware that for other Internet sources, the rule of thumb is if it exists in print it is acceptable, if doesn't it isn't.  So, e.g. an article from an academic periodical that has been made available on line is fine, but a web-site on monuments, historical background, etc. is not. When in doubt, please ask me.

On the day of presentation you also must submit:

     1. summary (c.3 pages) of your presentation to be tuned into me.

     2. one-page or two-page handout to all members of the class(including me) with an outline of indicating the key points of your presentation. If appropriate, please also provide copies of supporting images from books or the internet (please search ARTSTOR and Vroma.org before using other internet image data bases). if pertinent plans, images etc. are available in course handbook, make sure to at least refer to them by page numbers.

     3. A bibliography to be given to all members of the class(including me). It must include:

• relevant titles from the required reading on your syllabus

• reference to the ancient source quoted during presentation

• additional title/s from the suggested reading or your own research

     the presentation itself combined with 1-3 above is the basis of your grade


Term Paper (20% of the course grade)

     Due Date:  Tues. Apr. 15 No late papers accepted. Early papers welcome.

     Length: 3000 words (c. 8 double-spaced pages), exclusive of footnotes, bibliography, sketches and/or other supporting images

     Topic: Flavian Rome

     The paper is intended to develop skills of independent research, ability to evaluate and interpret materials and their inherent interests, and capability for discussing these in a nuanced manner in writing. The paper must combine visual analysis, iconographic and historical research and contextual interpretation. In other words, a formal essay that demonstrates the skills that you have developed and honed during the semester. The paper must also include a complete bibliography of primary and secondary sources used and all references must be fully cited in the paper itself. Outlines or drafts are optional but must be turned in at least 2 weeks prior to the due date; similarly if you have questions on content and bibliography set up an appointment with me at least 2 weeks prior to the due date.  For minor questions on content, bibliography, format  paraphrasing, quoting primary and secondary sources or methods of citation set up an appointment with me at least one week prior to the due date.  Please note that but there is no required format for citations; what is required is consistency that is, pick one format and stick to it!

** Additional guidelines, with details on the topic and other specifications, will be posted on Blackboard in the first few weeks of the semester. We will also be reviewing these guidelines in class.


Course Reading Looking and Note-Taking

     With the exception the course handbook, all readings are listed by author and date in course schedule, including chapters, entries or page numbers. The readings listed in the course schedule are occasionally repeated. This is because we proceed chronologically, topographically and thematically and focus on both art and architecture in the city of Rome, while the organization of the books in the required and suggested reading varies.

     Please be aware that this is a reading intensive course and to successfully complete it you should spend at least 5 hrs per week outside of class reading text and images and taking notes on both.  The "Required Reading" alone varies from 20-50 pp p/wk, plus images. Note too that completing your required reading means going to the library and using the reserve shelf.  Please organize your time, keeping in mind that other students will also be using the shelf (xeroxing relevant pages is an option).

     A bibliography of additional reading is provided after the course schedule (under heading entitled: Suggested Reading). A number of these readings are assigned, under the heading "Suggested Reading" in the course schedule. This means that they are not mandatory, but they are strongly recommended. Students who achieve top grades (B+, A- and A) are those who consistently do a significant amount of the recommended reading. Many of the sources cited, moreover, will be indispensable for both your presentation and term paper. The titles are abbreviated in the schedule, but are listed in full in the bibliography at the end of the syllabus. They are available on the reserve shelf in the library, in the stacks in the library, or retrievable from the internet, especially via JSTOR. If you have never downloaded articles from JSTOR the librarians will be more than happy to show you how easy it is! You are also strongly encouraged to look at as many Roman monuments as possible both in person, reproduced in books and available on line (see the list of Internet resources also provided); this is par for the course for anyone taking art history. And of course to read even more.

     The course-handbook must be brought to each and every class, as it has plans, elevations, reconstructions of monuments and excerpts from Ancient authors that we will consult during class.

     Class-handouts. Beginning with the second class (our first on-site), you will be given a hand-out consisting of a brief summary of the class, a list of the areas, monuments visited, and terms (usually no more than 1 or 2 typed pages). Occasionally images or excerpts from Ancient texts not included in the handbook will also be provided. These handouts are meant to help you organize your notes but, as you will quickly realize, they in no way replace careful note-taking.

     Taking notes in class. As for any course it is imperative to take notes, but because we will almost invariably be standing during class you should consider a liquid-ink pen or a pencil and a hard-back note-book or a clipboard for your note pad. Taking notes in your course handbook is also an option (and a helpful one, as you have text and images together), but it is soft and so probably also requires the aid of a clipboard.

     Photography. You are allowed to bring your camera to class, but may take pictures only after we have finished discussing individual monuments; that is, without interrupting class.

     Dress-code. Please remember to wear sturdy but comfortable shoes and to be equipped for the weather. Note too that in Italy, generally speaking, the better you dress the better they treat you. You do not, by any means, have to be elegant when you come to class, but please do not come in sweat-pants, shorts, ripped T-shirts and jeans, flip-flops and the like.


Grade Scale

A =       100% - 95%

B- =      79% - 75%

D+ =    59% - 55%

A- =      94% - 90%

C+ =     74% -70%

D =       54% - 50%

B+ =     89% - 85%

C =       69% - 65%

F=        49% and below

B =       84% - 80%

C- =      64% - 60%




Marking Criteria

Grade: A Work of this quality is rare and should stand out. It may be the case that in some areas of study a modest number of students achieve this mark on some assignments. However, when aggregating the marks awarded for the various elements of assessment, it is not expected that many students will achieve this overall result.  Work that receives a grade of A is characterized by the following:

  • Directly addresses the question or problem raised
  • Provides a coherent argument displaying an extensive knowledge of relevant information
  • Critically evaluates concepts and theory
  • Relates theory to practice
  • Reflects the student's own argument and is not simply a repetition of standard lecture and reference material
  • Is very accurate; has an element of novelty if not originality
  • Provides evidence of reading beyond the required reading
  • Displays an awareness of methodological concerns and displays an awareness of the limitations of current knowledge

Grade: B This is a highly competent level of performance. Students earning this grade may be deemed capable of pursuing more advanced study. Work that receives a grade of B is characterized by the following:

  • Directly addresses the question or problem raised
  • Provides a coherent argument drawing on relevant information
  • Shows some ability to evaluate concepts and theory and to relate theory to practice
  • Reflects the student's own argument and is not simply a repetition of standard lecture and reference material
  • Does not suffer from any major errors or omissions
  • Provides evidence of reading beyond the required reading
  • Displays an awareness of other approaches to the problem area

Grade: C This is an acceptable level of performance. All competent students should be expected to achieve at least this level. Work that receives a grade of C is characterized by the following:

  • Addresses the question but provides only a basic outline of relevant arguments and evidence along the lines of that offered in the lectures and referenced readings
  • Answers are clear but limited
  • Some minor omissions and inaccuracies but no major errors

Grade: C- This level of performance demonstrates some knowledge and an element of understanding but is, on the whole, weak. Students attaining this level of performance should compose a small minority of those in a course and should not expect to progress to more advanced degree work. Work that receives a grade of C- is characterized by the following:

  • Points made in the answer are not always well supported by argument and evidence
  • Relevant points have been omitted from the answer
  • There are some errors in the answer
  • Parts of the question remain unanswered
  • Answers may be unduly brief and possibly in note form

Grade: D These grades indicate that the students in question have barely done enough to persuade the instructor that they should not be failed. Work that receives a grade of D is characterized by the following:

  • Answers lack a coherent grasp of the problems and issues raised in the question
  • Important information has been omitted from the answers and irrelevant points have been included
  • Answers are far too brief

Grade: F Failing grades should be granted to work that indicates to the instructor that the students who submitted it have not benefited in any clear way from academic study. Failing work:

  • Fails to show any knowledge or understanding of the issues raised in the question
  • Reveals fundamental misunderstanding of the subject matter
  • Most of the material in the answer is irrelevant


Academic Honesty is assumed of all students. All forms of academic dishonesty (cheating on exams, plagiarizing papers, etc) will result automatically in an F for the assignment and may result in the student receiving a failing grade for the course (irrespective of the weight of the assignment). All instances of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Dean. Please consult the LCU undergraduate catalog for a full description of the University’s academic integrity policy.


1. Tues. Jan 21








Meeting place:


Suggested Reading:


Introduction to course


  • Course content and methodology
  • Course requirements, logistics, etc.
  • Chronological and thematic overview
  • Early Italy: the Latins and their neighbors in central Italy
  • Early Rome between Magna Grecia and Etruria




Coulston and Dodge in Coulston and Dodge 2000: introduction to archeology and topography of Rome; Elsner (1998), Ch. 2 ("A Visual Culture");Coarelli (2007): 1-9 (Introduction); Claridge (1988): 3- 27 (historical overview)


2. Tues. Jan 28



Meeting place:


Required reading:








Suggested Reading:


Rome's foundation: topography and mythology/

Architectural typologies and building materials


Ponte Garibaldi viewing platform on left side (when facing Trastevere)


Coarelli (2007): 1-9 (Introduction), 348-50 (Tiber Island), 307-10 (intro. F Holitorium, et al), 315-19 (Portus Tiberinus, T Portunus and Ara Maxima Hercules), 323-27 (Circus Maximus); Claridge (1988): 37-58 (building materials and techniques, architectural orders and dimensions, building types) xeroxing the pages from Claridge is strongly recommended, as they will come in handy throughout course; on bldg. techniques and construction materials see also Coarelli's Appendix


Coulston and Dodge in Coulston and Dodge 2000: introduction to archeology and topography of Rome; Smith in Coulston and Dodge (2000), esp. 24-35: early and Archaic Rome; Wiseman (2004): Roman Myths


Sign up for oral presentations


3. Tues. Feb. 4


Meeting place:


Required reading:






Suggested Reading:

Monuments and identity: Kings to Republic


Palatine Hill entrance on Via di San Gregorio


Coarelli (2007): 130-38 (intro. Palatine, Iron Age huts, western temples), 42-47 (intro R Forum), 91-92 (Archaic cemetery), 81-89 (Via Sacra, Regia, T Vesta, House Vestal Virgins), 50-57 (Shrine Venus Cloacina, Comitium, Curia Hostilia, Black Stone), 65-66 (T Saturn), 74-77 (T Castor and Pollux and Juturna); Stamper (2005): 6-10 (Kings of Rome) and 34-40 (early Republican R Forum)


Claridge (1988): 3-7 (history Kings to the 3rd cent. B.C.), 119-128 (intro. Palatine, Hut of Romulus, Victory Precinct and T Magna Mater), 61-65 (intro. R Forum), 68 (Shrine of Cloacina), 72-73 (Comitium and Black stone), 77-78 (T Concordia), 80-81 (T Saturn), 91-92 (T Castor and Pollux), 95-97 (Juturna), 101-106 (T Vesta and Regia); Cornell in Coulston and Dodge (2000): Rome in the Mid-Republic; Smith in Coulston and Dodge (2000), esp. 24-35: early and Archaic Rome



1. Temple of Vesta

2. Temple of Castor & Pollux

3. Temple of Saturn


*Quiz 1:  architectural orders / Roman use of architectural orders


4. Tues. Feb. 11


Meeting place:


Required reading:








Suggested Reading:
















Republican Rome: triumphs & temples, honor and fame


Capitoline Hill by equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius


Coarelli (2007): 28-36 (intro. Capitoline, T JOM, Area Capitolina), 40 (T Juno Moneta, Auguraculum), 260-67 (intro C Martius, Circus Flaminius), 270-71 (T Apollo Sosianus and T Bellona), 275-83 (Area Sacra) 289-90 (Saepta Julia), 307-10 (intro. F Holitorium, et al), 313-19 (Temples F Holitorium, T Portunus and Round T); Stamper (2005): Ch. 1 & 2 (T JOM), 44-48 (Area Sacra Largo Argentina), 49-50 (triumph, victory temples), 53-56 (temples southern Campus Martius), 59-68 (temples F Holitorium, T Portunus), 68-81 (Round T, Area Sacra Largo Argentina)


Beard (2007), esp. 42-53, 92-106: triumphal route/culture; Claridge (1988): 3-9 (history), 229-241 (Capitoline), 177-80 (intro C Martius), 215-19 (Area Sacra), 207 (Saepta Julia), 247-55 (T Bellona, temples F Holitorium, arcades along the triumphal way, S.Omobono temples, T Portunus, Round T); Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), pp. 219-227: (entertainment/ theatres); Cornell in Coulston and Dodge (2000): Rome in mid-Republic;  Flower (2004): triumphs, funerals, spectacle & politics; Orlin (1997): Republican temples & politics; Patterson (1992): Rome topography Republic to Empire; Shelton (1998): 251-52, 329-31: triumphs & spectacles; Ziokowski (1988): Round T



4. Temple Jupiter Optimus Maximus

5. Round Temple in the Forum Boarium


*Quiz 2: Roman Forum Valley: Kings to Republic



Fri. Feb. 14





*Mid-term Part I due via email - no later than 7 pm*





5. Tues. Feb. 18


Meeting place:


Required reading:





Suggested Reading:







Pompey, Caesar and Augustus: monumental power and architecture


Piazza Farnese fountain on right when facing Palazzo Farnese


Coarelli (2007): 103-113 (F Caesar, F Augustus), 283-285 (Theater Pompey); Kleiner (1992): 59-61 (intro Augustus and Augustan art) and 99-103 (F Augustus); Stamper 84-90 (Theatre Pompey), 90-102 (intro Caesar and F Caesar), 130-141 (intro Augustus and F of Augustus)


Claridge (1988):9-14 (history), 148-53 (F Caesar), 158-161 (F Augustus), 215 (Theater Pompey); Kellum (1997): esp. 164-7 (F Augustus); DeRose Evans (2009): Sculpture Theatre Pompey; Kuttner (1999): Theatre Pompey; Kuttner (2004): Art in Republican Rome; Patterson (1992): Rome topography Republic to Empire; Walker in Coulston and Dodge 2000: 61-75 (Augustan patronage); Ward Perkins (1981): Ch. 1 ("Augustan Rome"); Zanker (1988), 185-215 (F Augustus)



6. Theater and Portico of Pompey

7. Forum of Julius Caesar



6. Tues. Feb. 25




Meeting place:


Required reading:




Suggested Reading:








Honorific portraiture and public self-representation

from the Late Republic to Vespasian

 The Garden Fresco from the villa of Livia at Prima Porta


Palazzo Massimo entrance (Piazza dei Cinquecento, by Termini)


Kleiner (1992): Ch. 1: 31-47 (Republican Portraiture), Ch. 2, 59-69 (intro to Augustus and Augustan portraiture), 75-89 (Augustan female portraiture and freedmen portraits)


Christ (1997); toga/ togate portraits; Claridge (1988): 3-14 (history); Fejfer (2009): Roman portraits, esp. Part I (honorific portraiture), 181-213 (male body types), 262-270 (Republican portraiture), and 331-426 (imperial portraiture); Kellum (1994): garden fresco; Kleiner (1992): Ch. 3: 123-141 (Julio-Claudian portraiture); Stevenson (1998): honorific nude portrait statues; Smith (1981): Republican Portraits; Strong (1988): Preface to the First Edition and Ch. 1 ("The Beginnings"), Ch. 2 (The Mid and Late Republic), Ch. 4 (Transitions to the Empire and Augustus); Zanker (1988): Introduction, Ch. 1, esp. 5-25, Ch. 2, esp. 33-65, and. Ch. 3 (Late Republican portraits/ Augustan portraits)



8. The "General of Tivoli" (marble portrait statue)

9. Garden Fresco from the villa at Prima Porta


*Quiz 3: Forum of Augustus


7. Tues. Mar. 4


Meeting Place:


Required reading:






Suggested reading:


The Campus Martius in the Age of Augustus


Side of the Ara Pacis Museum by inscription opposite Mausoleum of Augustus


Coarelli (2007): 260-272 (intro C Martius, Theater Marcellus, T Apollo Sosianus, Portico Octavia), 285-286 (Baths of Agrippa), 299-304 (Ara Pacis and Mausoleum); Kleiner (1992): 59-61 (intro to Augustus and Augustan art), 90-99 (Ara Pacis and Mausoleum); Stamper (2005): 105-108 (Augustus), 126-129 (Augustan Campus Martius);


Claridge (1988): 11-14 (history), 181-192 (monuments northern C Martius), 222-226 (Porticus Octavia),and243-247 (Theatre Marcellus, T Apollo Medicus Sosianus); Clarke (2003): 19-28 (monuments northern C Martius); Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), 219-227 (entertainment/ theatres); Davies (2000): 13-19, 76-78 (horologium) 137-42 (mausoleum); Kleiner and Buxton (2008): Ara Pacis; Holliday (1990): Ara Pacis; Heslin (2007): horologium;  Patterson (1992): Rome topography Republic to Empire;Rose (1990): Ara Pacis; Strong (1988): 80-84 (Ara Pacis); Thomas (1996): Pantheon Agrippa to S Severus; Walker in Coulston and Dodge 2000: 61-75 (Augustan patronage); Ward Perkins (1981): Ch. 1 ("Augustan Rome"); Zanker (1988), esp. 72-75, 139-43, 156-9, 172-83 (Augustan C Martius)



10. Mausoleum of Augustus

11. Augustan Sundial (aka Horologium)


Thurs. Mar. 6


*Mid-term Part II due via email - no later than 7 pm*




Fri. Mar. 7

Sun. Mar. 16


*********SPRING BREAK*********

8. Tues. Mar. 18




Meeting Place:


Required reading:









Suggested reading:















Dynasty and Power: the Roman Forum of Augustus

The re-shaping of central Rome from Nero to the Flavians

*N.B. monuments that feature in the term paper are analyzed in this class


Roman Forum: Via dei Fori Imperiali entrance


Coarelli (2007): 42-54 (R Forum overview, Bas. Aemilia, Porticus Gaius & Lucius, Comitium), 57-59 (Curia), 64-5 (Rostra), 71-75 (Bas. Julia, T Castor and Pollux), 79-81 (Divus Iulius, Arch of Augustus), 66-67 (T Vespasian & Titus), 97-88 (Arch of Titus), 159- 160 (intro Col. Valley), 177-186 (intro Esquiline and Domus Aurea); Stamper (2005): 103-104 (Caesarian R Forum), 141-150 (Augustan R Forum), 151-156 (Flavian rebuilding of JOM), 159-161 (T Vespasian & Titus), 168-172 (Arch of Titus); Kleiner (1992): 113-117 (legacy of Augustan art), 167-173 (intro Civil War AD 68-69 and Flavian Dynasty), 183-190 (Arch of Titus)


Albertson (2001): Colossus Nero; Claridge (1988):9-17 (history), 61-68 (intro R Forum, Porticus Gaius & Lucius, Bas. Aemilia), 70-72 (Curia), 79-80 (T Vespasian & Titus), 81-84 (Rostra), 89-90 (Bas. Julia), 97-99 (Divus Julius, Arch of Augustus), 116-118 (Arch of Titus), 290-292 (Domus Aurea);Davies 2000: 19-27, 67-71, 142-48 (Arch of Titus); Gurval (1997): Divus Julius/Comet; Patterson (1992): Rome topography Republic to Empire;Pollard (2009): T of Peace; Rose (2005): esp. 28-36 (Parthian Arch/ Arch of Augustus); Strong (1988) 122-132 (Domus Aurea, Arch of Titus); Thomas (2004): Equus Domitiani and Domitan patronage R Forum area; Von Blanckenhagen (1954) Imperial Fora; Walker in Coulston and Dodge 2000: 61-75 (Augustan patronage); Ward Perkins (1981): Ch. 1 ("Augustan Rome"), 56-61 (Domus Aurea) and 63-84 (Flavians) and Ch 4 ("Materials and Methods: The Roman Architectural Revolution"); Zanker (1988), esp. 79-82, 98-99 (Augustan R Forum, Parthians)



12. Temple to the Deified Julius Caesar

13. Arch Augustus/ Parthian Arch

14. Colossus of Nero



























9. Tues. Mar. 25




Meeting Place:



Required Reading:







Suggested reading:


The re-shaping of central Rome from Nero to the Flavians, cont.

Trajan's Forum Complex

*N.B. monuments that feature in the term paper are analyzed in this class


Metro stop Colosseo (B line): by Roman sarcophagus recycled as a fountain (to the left as you exit, past newspaper stand)


Coarelli (2007): 159- 160 (intro Col. Valley), 177-186 (intro Esquilne and Domus Aurea), 164-172 (Col., Ludus Magnus), 125-128 (T Peace), 113-115 (F Transistorium), 115-125 (Trajan's F and markets); Kleiner (1992): 179-81 (sculptural display T Peace), 192-194 (F Transistorium), 212-223 (sculpture in Trajan's F); Stamper (2005): 151 (intro Flavians), 156-159 (T Peace), 161-168 (F Transistorium), Ch. 10 (Trajan's F)


Anderson (1982): T Peace and F Transistorium; Claridge (1988): 15-25 (history), 276-284 (Col. and Ludus Magnus), 153-157 (T Peace, F Transistorium) 161-172 (Trajan's F and markets); Clarke (2003), 28-41 (Trajan's F); Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), 227-240 (entertainment/ amphitheatres); Davies (1997) and (2000): 127-135 (column of Trajan); Noreña (2003) T of Peace; Packer (2001): Trajan's F (see for plans and reconstructions); Pollard (2009): T Peace; Strong (1988): 141-153 (Trajan's F); Taub (1993): Forma Urbis; Ward Perkins (1981): 63-84 (Flavians), 84-95 (Trajan's patronage in Rome) and Ch 4 ("Materials and Methods: The Roman Architectural Revolution"); Welch (2007), 147-62 (Domus Aurea and Colosseum)



15. Colosseum

16. Trajan's Column

*Quiz 4: Augustan Roman Forum


*Discussion of Term Paper: remember to bring Guidelines*


10. Tues. Apr. 1



Meeting Place:


Required Reading:







Suggested reading:










Imperial Fora (at Museum of the Fori imperiali in Trajan's markets)

The Antonine Campus Martius


Trajan's Column


Von Blanckenhagen (1954) "The Imperial Fora" JSAH 13/4, 21-26 [JSTOR- dated but a gem of succinct clarity]; Coarelli (2007):  286-89 (Pantheon), 291-93 (Hadrianeum), 296-99 (columns M. Aurelius and A. Pius); Kleiner (1992):  283-85 (Hadrianeum), 295-301 (column M. Aurelius); Stamper (2005): Ch. 11 (Pantheon) and 212-14 (Hadrianeum)



Claridge (1988):9-25 (history), 193-206 (column M. Aurelius, Pantheon & Hadrianeum); Clarke (2003): Ch. 2, esp. 42-53 (column M. Aurelius comp. to column Trajan); Davies (2000): 34-48, 79-83 and 158-171 (Mausoleum Hadrian, Pantheon, columns A. Pius and M. Aurelius); Pirson (1996): column of M. Aurelius; Strong (1988): 206-11 (column M. Aurelius); Thomas (1996): Pantheon Agrippa to S Severus; Ward-Perkins (1981): Ch 4 ("Materials and Methods: The Roman Architectural Revolution) and 111-18 (Pantheon)


Please note: the Required and Suggested reading on the imperial fora is listed in classes #s 5, 8 & 9



18. Column of Marcus Aurelius



11. Tues. Apr. 8



Meeting Place:


Required Reading:





Suggested reading:


Monuments of Severan Rome 



Capitoline Hill by equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius


Coarelli (2007): 60-63 (Arch S Severus), 320 (Arch of the Argentarii) 155 (Septizodium), 327-331 (Baths of Caracalla); Kleiner (1992): 317-319 (intro Severans), 329-32 (Arch S. Severus), 334-339 (Arch of the Argentarii, Baths of Caracalla)


Brilliant (1967): Arch S Severus; Claridge (1988): 17-27 (history), 75-76 (Arch S Severus), 259-60 (Arch Argentarii), 319-28 (Baths of Caracalla); Clarke (2003): Ch. 2, esp. 53-67 (Arches of S. Severus and Constantine); Elsner (2005): Arch Argentarii; Gorrie (2004): Julia Domna patronage; Hughes (2009): Province Reliefs; Lusnia (2004): Septizodium; Marvin (1983): Sculptures Baths Caracalla; Strong (1988): 218-222 (Severan reliefs)


*Quiz 5: Pantheon


12. Tues. Apr. 15



Meeting Place:


Required Reading:










Suggested reading:







The public re-presentation of the imperial persona

 2nd century-4th centuries AD


Capitoline Hill by equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius


Coarelli (2007): 98-99 (T Venus & Roma), 160-163 (Arch Constantine); Kleiner (1992): 207-212 (intro to Trajan; portraiture of Trajan and Plotina) 237-42 (intro to Hadrian; portraiture Hadrian and Sabina), 253-56 (Arco di Portogallo Reliefs and Adventus Relief), 267-80 (intro Antonines and Antonine portraiture), 283-85 (intro Antonine State Releifs and Hadrianeum reliefs), 288-95 (Marcus Aurelius Reliefs), 316-29 (intro to Severans and Severan portraiture), 357-384 (intro. to 3rd cent. and 3rd cent. portraiture), 433-455 (Constantinian portraiture and Arch Constantine; on the Arch see also see also pp. 251-53 and 288-95); Stamper (2005): 206-212 (T Venus and Roma)


Claridge (1988): 17-27 (history), 113-115 (T Venus and Roma), 272-76 (Arch Constantine); Clarke (2003): Ch. 2, esp. 53-67 (Arches of S. Severus and Constantine); Fejfer (2009): Roman portraits, esp. Part I (honorific portraiture) and 331-426 (imperial portraiture); Harrison (1967): Constantinian portraiture; Hughes (2009): Province Reliefs Hadrianeum; Marlowe (2006): Arch Constantine; Smith (1985): imperial portraiture; Smith (1997): early 4th century imperial portraiture; Strong (1988): 159-62 (Trajanic portraiture), 171-82 (Hadrianic portraiture and relief sculpture), 200-01 (Aurelian relief panels), 211-14 (Antonine portraiture), 228 (Severan portraiture), 250-255 and 264-5 (third century portraiture), 264-266 (Tetrarchs), 278-280 (Constantinian portraiture); Strong (1988): 276-278 (Arch Constantine); Wilson Jones (2000): Arch Constantine: Wright (1987): Constantinian portraiture


*********TERM PAPER DUE**********


13. Tues. Apr. 22


Meeting Place:




***Review session for Final Exam***




Remember to bring review sheet.

Please also come to class with questions based on your revision

Exam week:

Sat. Apr. 26 and Mon-Thurs. Apr.28-May 1


********Final EXAM at JFRC**********

Date and Time TBA

Suggested Reading: Library Stacks, Internet

  • · Aicher, P. J. (2006), Rome Alive: a source-guide to the Ancient City   [DG13 .A37 2004]
  • · Albertson, F.C. (2001) " Zenodorus's "Colossus of Nero" MAAR 46: 95-118 [JSTOR]
  • · Anderson, J. (1982) "Domitian, the Argiletum and the Temple of Peace" AJA 86/1, 101-110. [JSTOR]
  • · Barton, E. (2007) "The scandal of the Arena" Representations 27 (1989): 1-36 [JSTOR]
  • · Beard, M. (2007), The Roman Triumph[DG89 .B43 2007]
  • · Beard, M., North, J.A. and Price S.R.F. (1998), Religions of Rome 2vols. [BL802 .B43 1998]
  • · Boardman, J.ed. (2001), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World. [DG231 .O84 2001]
  • · Boatwright, M.T., Gargola, D.J. and Talbert, R. (2004)The Romans: from Village to Empire. [DG209 .B58 2004]
  • · Boyle, A.J. and  Dominik, W.J. eds. (2003), Flavian Rome: culture, image, text. [DG286 .F53 2003]
  • · Brilliant, R. (1967) "The Arch of Septimius Severus in the Roman Forum" MAAR 29 [JSTOR]
  • · Carter, M.J. (2006/2007) "Gladiatorial combat: the rules of engagement" CJ 102.2: 97-114 [JSTOR]
  • · Christ, A. T. (1997) "The Masculine Ideal of "the Race That Wears the Toga" AJ 56/ 2, 24-30 [JSTOR]
  • · Clarke, J. (2003) Art in the Lives of Ordinary Romans: Visual Representation and Non-Elite Viewers in Italy, 100 B.C.–A.D. 315 [N72 .S6 C58 2003]
  • · Coarelli, F. (2001) The Colosseum.  [DG68.1 .C6513 2001]
  • · Connoly, P. and Dodge, H. (1998) The Ancient City: life in classical Athens & Rome [DE59 .C59 1998]
  • · Cooley, A. and Pormann, P.E. (2009) The first emperor and the queen of inscriptions: Augustus in his own words. Classics in Discussion, University of Warwick, Dept. of Classics, Jan. 2010: www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/classics/podcast
  • · Coulston, J. and Dodge, H. eds. (2000) Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City [DG63 .A57 2000]
  • · D’Ambra, E. ed. (1993) Roman Art in Context. [N5760 .R64]
  • · Davies, P. (1997) "The politics of perpetuation: Trajan's Column and the art of commemoration" AJA 101/1: 41-65 [JSTOR]
  • · Davies, P. (2000) Death and the Emperor: Roman imperial funerary monuments, from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius [NB1875 .D38 2000]
  • · Elsner, J. (1998) Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph [N 5760 .E47 1998]
  • · Elsner, J. (2005) "Sacrifice and Narrative on the Arch of the Argentarii at Rome" Journal of Roman Archaeology 18, 83-98 (prof. has copy)
  • · Fejfer, J. (2009) Roman Portraits in Context (available through library website = Pegasus- via EBL)
  • · Flower, H. I. (2004) "Spectacle and Political Culture in the Roman Republic" in Flower, H. I. ed. The Cambridge Companion to the RomanRepublic, 322-342 [DG235 .C36 2004]
  • Gorrie, C. (2004) "Julia Domna's Building Patronage, Imperial Family Roles and the Severan Revival of Moral Legislation" Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 53/ 1, 61-72 [JSTOR]
  • · Hannestad, N. (1986) Roman Art and Imperial Policy. [N5763 .H3513 1988]
  • · Holliday, P.J. (1990): "Time, history, and ritual on the Ara Pacis Augustae" AB 72/4, 542-57 [JSTOR]
  • · Kellum, B. (1994) "The construction of landscape in Augustan Rome: the Garden Room at the villa ad Gallinas" AB 76.2: 212-24. [JSTOR]
  • · Kellum, B. (1997) "Concealing/revealing: gender and the play of meaning in the monuments of Augustan Rome " in T. Habinek and A. Schiesaro (eds), The Roman Cultural Revolution, 158-181 [DG 279 .R618 1997]
  • · Kleiner, D.E.E. and Buxton, B. (2008) "Pledges of Empire: The Ara Pacis and the Donations of Rome" AJA 112, 57-89 [JSTOR]
  • · Kuttner, A. (1995):"Republican Rome looks at Pergamon" Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 97, 157-78 [JSTOR]
  • · Kuttner, A. (1999) "Culture and History at Pompey's Museum" TAPA 129, 343-373  [JSTOR]
  • · Kuttner, A. (2004) "Roman Art During the Republic" in Flower, H. I. ed. The Cambridge Companion to the RomanRepublic, 294- 321 [DG235 .C36 2004]
  • · Harrison, E. (1967) "The Constantinian Portrait" DOP 21, 81-96 and figures [JSTOR]
  • · Heslin, P. (2007) "Augustus, Domitian and the So-Called Horologium Augusti" JRS 97, 1-20 [JSTOR]
  • · Hughes, J. (2009) "Personifications and the Ancient Viewer: the Case of the Hadrianeum 'Nations'" Art History 32/1, 1-20 (available on-line through library; prof. also has copy)
  • · Ling, R. (1991) Roman Painting. [ND120 .L56 1991]
  • · Lusnia, S. (2004) "Urban Planning and Sculptural Display in Severan Rome: Reconstructing the Septizodium and its Role in Dynastic Politics" AJA 108/4, 517-544
  • · MacDonald, W. (1976) The Pantheon: design, meaning, and progeny. [NA323 .M34 1976]
  • · MacDonald, W. (1982) The Architecture of the Roman Empire (2 vols). [NA 310 .M2 1982]
  • · Marlowe, E. (2006) "Framing the Sun: the Arch of Constantine and the Roman cityscape" AB 88.2: 223-42 [JSTOR]
  • · Marvin, M. (1983) "Freestanding Sculptures from the Baths of Caracalla" AJA 87/3, 347-384
  • · Noreña, C.F. (2003) "Medium and message in Vespasian’s Templum Pacis" MAAR 48: 25-43 [JSTOR]
  • · Orlin, E. (1997) Temples, Religion and Politics in Republican Rome. New York : E.J. Brill, 1997, in series: Mnemosyne, bibliotheca classica Batava. Supplementum 164 [BL 805 .O75 1997]
  • · Packer, J. (1997) The Forum of Trajan in Rome. A Study of the Monuments [NA 312 .P23 1997]
  • · Patterson, J. (1992), "The City of Rome: from Republic to Empire" JRS 82: 186-215 [JSTOR]
  • · Platner, S.B. and Ashby, T. (2002 repr.)Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome [DG16.P685 2002 (Ref.)]
  • · Pirson, F. (1996) "Style and Message on the Column of Marcus Aurelius" PBSR 64, 139-179 [JSTOR]
  • · Pollard, E. A. (2009), "Natural History and the Flavian Templum Pacis: Botanical Imperialism in First-Century"  Journal of World History 20/ 3, 309-338 [Project MUSE]
  • · Rose, C.B. (1990) “Princes” and Barbarians on the Ara Pacis" AJA 94.3: 453-67 [JSTOR]
  • · Rose, C.B. (2005) "The Parthians in Augustan Rome" AJA 109.1: 21-75 [JSTOR]
  • · Scarre, C. (1995) The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. [G 1033 .S28 1995]
  • · Sear, F. (1982) Roman Architecture. [NA310 .S44 1983]
  • · Shelton, J.-A. (1998) As the Romans Did. A Sourcebook in Roman Social History [HN 10 .R7 S45 1998]
  • · Smith, R.R.R. (1981) "Greeks, Foreigners, and Roman Republican Portraits" JRS 71, 24-38 [JSTOR]
  • · Smith, R.R.R. (1985): "Roman Portraits: Honors, Empresses, and Late Emperors" JRS, 209-221 (review article)  [JSTOR]
  • · Smith, R.R.R. (1997) "The Public Image of Licinius I: Portrait Sculpture and Imperial Ideology in the Early Fourth Century" JRS 87, 170-202 [JSTOR]
  • · Stevenson, T. (1998) "The ‘problem’ with nude honorific statuary and portraits in late republican and Augustan Rome" Greece and Rome 45.1: 45-69. [JSTOR]
  • · Strong, D. (1988) Roman Art, 2nd ed. [N 5760 .S68 1988]
  • · Taub, L. (1993), "The Historical Function of the Forma Urbis Roma" Imago Mundi 45, 9-19 [JSTOR]
  • · Thomas, E. (1996) "The Architectural History of the Pantheon in Rome from Agrippa to Septimius Severus" Hephaistos 14, 163-186
  • · Thomas, M. L. (2004), "(Re)locating Domitian's Horse of Glory: The "Equus Domitiani" and Flavian Urban Design" MAAR 49: 21-46  [JSTOR]
  • · von Blanckenhagen, P. H. (1954) "The Imperial Fora" JSAH 13/4, 21-26
  • · Wallace-Hadrill, A. (1993) Augustan Rome.  London: Bristol Classical. [DG279 .W35. 1993]
  • · Ward-Perkins, J.B. (1981) Roman Imperial Architecture [NA310 .W34 1994 ]
  • · Wardle, D. (1996), "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol" Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 45/ 2, 208-222 [JSTOR]
  • · Welch, K. (2007)The Roman Amphitheatre: from its origins to the Colosseum [NA313 .W45 2007]
  • · Wilson Jones, M. (2000) "Genesis and mimesis: the design of the Arch of Constantine in Rome" JSAH 59/1, 50-77 [JSTOR]
  • · Wiseman, T.P. (2004) The Myths of Rome. [BL803 .W57 2004]
  • · Wiseman, T.P. “The God of the Lupercal” Journal of Roman Studies 85 (1995): 1-22
  • · Woolf, G., ed. (2003) Cambridge Illustrated History of the Roman World. [DG209 .C36 2003]
  • · Wright, D.H. (1987) "The true face of Constantine the Great" DOP 41: 493-507 [JSTOR]
  • · Zanker, P. (1988), The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus [N5760 .Z36 1988]. Excerpts also available at: http://www.uark.edu/ua/metis2/zanker/zanker_txt.html and http://www.uark.edu/ua/metis2/zanker/zanker_txt2.html
  • · Ziolkowski, A. (1988) "Mummius' Temple of Hercules Victor and the Round Temple on the Tiber" Phoenix 42/4: 309-33 [JSTOR]

INTERNET image resources

  • · Vroma image archive: www.vroma.org accurate and reliable digital archive of Ancient Greek and Roman artworks; can be downloaded in jpg format
  • · ARTSTOR:  A digital library of nearly one million images that can be viewed on-line (in full, in zoom detail); can be stored on-line in personal folders; and can be downloaded in jpg format
  • · Rome Reborn:  www.romereborn.virginia.edu (3D reconstructions of ancient Rome)
  • · Digital Roman Forum Project http://dlib.etc.ucla.edu/projects/Forum/ (Good discussions and bibliography of monuments in the Forum Romanum and beyond)
  • · Ara Pacis Augustae: http://cdm.reed.edu/ara-pacis (good images and some basic information on the monument)