Loyola University Chicago

John Felice Rome Center

CLST 395 Topography of Rome

Spring 2016

Loyola University

John Felice Rome Center

The Topography of Ancient Rome (CLST/ROST 395)

Spring 2016: Tues. 9:30-12:30


Prof. Sharon Salvadori

Office Hours Tuesday afternoon 2-6, by appointment

Email: ssalvadori@luc.edu

Cell phone: 339 545 9356

Course Description and Objectives

     This is an upper level survey course on the topography of the city of Rome from its origins (c. 753 B.C.) to the reign of Constantine (312-337 AD). The definition and development of urban space are examined in the context of their political, religious, military and social functions and meanings. Public monumental art and architecture are the “primary sources” for this examination of the built environment and visual culture of the Ancient city. Key themes include the urban articulation of Roman identity, the city as memory theatre, the Roman reception of Greek art and architecture, the interplay between the emperor and the city, and the impact of the Empire on the city of Rome. The primary aim of the course is to provide an in-depth familiarity and appreciation of the multifaceted nature of city in its original historical context.

     The class is taught at archeological sites and in museums in Rome.



  • understanding key aspects of urban layout and spatial organization in Ancient Rome
  • understanding key structural, functional and stylistic aspects of Ancient Roman art and architecture
  • ability to analyze and interpret the urban topography and development of Ancient Rome and, more specifically, the motives in the creation, use and reception of areas, neighborhoods and monuments in their original (Ancient) political, religious, and social contexts
  • skills for the critical analysis of urban topography and visual culture generally
  • familiarity with different methods of art historical analysis and terminology and the ability to deploy them successfully
  • ability to apply critical thinking and analysis generally
  • ability to select and organize material to produce a coherent and cogent argument both orally and in writing- and to do so to so respecting deadlines.
  • ability to exchange ideas and engage in discussion with peers


Required Course Texts

  • Coarelli, F. (2007) Rome and its Environs: An Archaeological Guide (to purchase)
  • Course handbook (to purchase)
  • Kleiner, D.E.E. (1992) Roman Sculpture (Lib. reserve)
  • Stamper, J. (2005),The Architecture of Roman Temples. Republic to Mid-Empire (Lib. reserve)


**********See also below: “Course Reading Looking and Note-Taking” ***********



Final grades are based on attendance, participation, 1 mid-term (consisting of 2 tests), 1 final exam, 1 presentation, and 1 term paper, as follows:


Attendance                                         required, not graded

Participation                                       5%

Mid Term (=2 tests)                            20%

Final Exam:                                        25%

Presentation                                       20%

Term Paper                                        30%


Attendance (required not graded)

     All scheduled classes are mandatory. Attendance will be taken at the beginning of each class. You are allowed one unjustified absence- no questions asked- but two unjustified absences will result in a failing grade for the course (because each class is a double period the 2 classes are the equivalent of 4). Justified absences are documented illness and accidents (doctor’s note required). Travel mishaps do not constitute a justified absence.

     On-site courses obviously require moving, you must therefore always be punctual at our initial meeting points (specified below in the class schedule). You should calculate 90 minutes travel time from JFRC  and this means you must be out of the door by 8:00 AM! It is your responsibility to find out where the meeting places are. You may ask me in advance, but no later than during the class the week before. I will not respond to last minute emails or phone calls. Coarelli, F. (2007) Rome and Environs. An Archeological Guide  (your textbook!) has many useful maps to locate sites. For subway and bus lines consult www.atac. it (available in English).


Participation (5% of course grade)

     Active participation is expected of all students, but the level or amount of your engagement is graded. P

Although it is only 5% of the course grade it could ensure an A rather than an A- as your final grade. Participating means coming to class having read the week’s assignment (listed in the schedule below), prepared to ask and answer questions and to share any pertinent observations. Remember too that the more you engage, the more fun the class will be not only for you but also for everyone else (me included).


Mid-term (20% of course grade; in the form of two-take home tests, each worth 10% of course grade)

The midterm is designed to assess your knowledge of essential facts about areas, neighborhoods, monuments, artworks in Ancient Rome and your ability to critically interpret and assess their historical significance. It consists in 2 take-home texts (referred to below as Test 1 and Test 2) that must be submitted to me via email. Questions will be posted electronically a week prior to the due date. They will consist in a combination of comparisons or other kinds of short answer questions (min. 300- max. 500 words) and/or essays (min. 800- max. 1000 words); for a maximum of c. 2000 words for each test (c. 4-5 double-spaced pages). You are more than encouraged to brainstorm with each other (best as a class), but the answers must be in your own words. Sources must be appropriately cited in your answers (MLA style will do) and bibliography provided at the end.

     Test 1 due Fri. Feb. 12.  The focus is on Rome from c. 753 to c. 100 BC: Kings to Republic, including ‘topographical’ myths of origin even when they are only documented in later periods (as they inevitably are)

     Test 2 due Thurs. Mar. 3 The focus is on Rome from c. 100 BC to AD 14: Late Republic (Pompey, Caesar and Octavian) to Augustus.


Final Exam (25% of the course grade)

The Final Exam takes place during exam week at JFRC, exact Date and time TBA

     Like the mid-term tests, the final exam is structured to assess your knowledge of essential facts about areas, neighborhoods, monuments, artworks in Ancient Rome and your ability to critically interpret and assess their historical significance. The exam is cumulative, although with a greater emphasis on Rome from the reign of Trajan to that of Constantine (2nd-4th century). You may expect material from earlier periods to show up especially in comparisons.

     The exam consists in:

6 slide identifications 5 minutes each, worth 30% of your exam grade (5% each).  Name, typology, date, media, (original) location, function, and patronage must be specified as known or relevant. E.g. the Colosseum does not, strictly speaking, have a subject, but the marble friezes on the Ara Pacis do; a portrait statue of Augustus is just that, but the emperor may be depicted as young, middle-aged or old, may be dressed in civilian, priestly or military garb (or combinations...) and these kinds of visual elements must be both mentioned and described (e.g. what visual devices are employed to represent Augustus as youthful? what iconographic elements denote that he is a general or officiating as a priest? etc., etc.). Last but not least, you must indicate at least one reason the topographical area, monument or artwork was significant in its original historical context. For example in addition to noting that the Colosseum was built by Vespasian on the site of the artificial lake in Nero's Domus Aurea complex, you should explain (however briefly) that the location was very significant from a symbolic (and propagandistic) point of view since it transformed imperial property destined for the private enjoyment of Nero to a public venue destined for the entertainment of all Roman citizens. Similarly, in addition describing how a portrait of Augustus depicts him as young, you should mention that all his portraits show him a young and discuss (however briefly) what message was being conveyed by this representation of " eternal" youth....An identification which lists a complete series of correct facts, but fails to discuss why they are significant, will score lower than one that is missing a few facts but which includes an assessment of historical significance.

4 slide comparisons 10 minutes each, worth 40% of the exam grade (10% each). One or more images of two sites or monuments will be shown to you. You must identify each one (again name, typology, date, media, (original) location, function, patronage, but also (and most importantly) consider them in relation to one another: i.e. discuss significant similarities and differences (often variously combining meaning, function, patronage, structural or formal components). Typically the primary significance of comparisons is rooted in historically specific (and significant) thematic connections. E.g. if the comparison consists of the garden room at Livia's villa at Prima Porta with the Ara Pacis (the Altar of Peace), the fact that the first is decorated with paintings and the second with sculpture, is less important than the fact that the imagery depicted in both expresses interrelated or similar (though not identical) concerns of the Augustan period in different viewing contexts, denoting both the pervasive and sophisticated character of Augustan visual ideology ...obviously you would mention the salient elements of that ideology...

1 essay 30 minutes, worth 30% of the exam grade. Two weeks prior to the exam (and a week before our review session), you will be given 2 essay questions accompanied by images of sites and/or monuments. One of the two will be on exam. However, the other topic will undoubtedly show up in the identifications and comparisons, so be sure to prepare for both (combined they are worth 40-50% of exam!)

***A voluntary review session is scheduled for Fri. Apr. 22. PPoint review presentations will be posted on Sakai the week before the review.


Presentation (20% of course grade)

     The presentation consists of a 15-minute report (no less, no more) to the class on a monument or artwork in Rome and will take place before the monument or artwork itself. It is intended to develop your skills in independent research, observation, interpretation, evaluation and public speaking (developing the ability to express yourself orally in a clear, concise and effective manner is as important as the content of the presentation …content without form undermines content itself...)

     The presentation topics have been inserted in the course schedule. You will be required to sign up Tuesday Feb. 3 (class three).

The presentation in class must include:

• a descriptive account of the monument/artwork (date, location, medium, size, technique, composition, texture, costume, gestures, etc., as relevant)

• a contextual and interpretative discussion (function, patronage, impact, associations, etc., as relevant)

• a pertinent Ancient source to be read to the class (Aicher 2006 and Shelton 1998 are two good sourcebooks)

• 2-3 questions raised by the monument, artwork or subject addressed to the class to engage them directly in your topic and so further develop it. This also means that you should avoid “quizzing” the class on ascertained facts (e.g. “who was the patron of the Colosseum?”). Rather the questions should consist in “whys”, that is questions that address issues of interpretation, motivations, reception, etc.  e.g. how does Vespasian’s patronage of the Colosseum relate to Augustus’ architectural patronage in Rome? Why was Augustus one of his chosen models? How did it benefit his rule? etc.

Your presentation must clearly demonstrate that

1. you have read and understood the required reading listed on your syllabus for your topic

2. you have read and understood at least two additional academic sources on your topic; the most obvious and sure-fire (and easiest) option is to choose relevant publications from the "Suggested Reading" listed on your syllabus; but other pertinent books and periodicals available in the JFRC library, or available through JSTOR, MUSE and other legitimate academic publication data bases may also be used. Please be aware that for other Internet sources, the rule of thumb is if it exists in print it is acceptable, if doesn't it isn't.  So, e.g. an article from an academic periodical that has been made available on line is fine, but a web-site on monuments, historical background, etc. is not. Also be aware that our knowledge about Ancient Rome has grown in time and so too research questions have evolved so please be wary of older publications (say pre-1980) unless you are certain they are still valid.  When in doubt, ask me.

On the day of presentation you must submit:

            1. one-page or two-page handout to all members of the class(including me) with an outline of indicating the key points of your presentation and a bibliography which must include:

A. relevant titles from the required reading on your syllabus

B. the reference for the ancient source quoted during presentation

C. The additional title/s from the suggested reading or your own research

If appropriate, please also provide copies of supporting images from books or the internet (please search ARTSTOR and Vroma.org before using other internet image data bases). If pertinent plans, images etc. are available in course handbook, make sure to refer to them by page numbers.

     2. A detailed summary (c.3-4 pages) of your presentation to be turned into me.

**The presentation itself combined with 1-2 above is the basis of your grade


Term Paper (30% of the course grade)

     Due Date:  Tues. Apr. 19. No late papers accepted. Early papers welcome.

     Format: in hard copy in class and in electronic form (= via email) by end of day = 7pm

     Length: 3000 words (c. 8 double-spaced pages; word count counts), exclusive of footnotes, bibliography, sketches and supporting images (in your electronic format please scan sketches; if not possible include image caption that corresponds to copy label in hard copy)

     The paper is intended to develop skills of independent research, ability to evaluate and interpret materials and their inherent interests, and capability for discussing these in a nuanced manner in writing. The paper must combine visual analysis, iconographic and historical research and contextual interpretation. In other words, a formal essay that demonstrates the skills that you have developed and honed during the semester. The paper must also include a complete bibliography of primary and secondary sources used and all references must be fully cited in the paper itself. Outlines or drafts are optional but must be turned in at least 2 weeks prior to the due date; similarly if you have questions on content and bibliography set up an appointment with me at least 2 weeks prior to the due date . For minor questions on content, bibliography, format, paraphrasing, quoting primary and secondary sources or methods of citation set up an appointment with me at least one week prior to the due date.  Please note that but there is no required format for citations; what is required is consistency that is, pick one format and stick to it!

** Topics and Additional guidelines will be posted on Sakai in the first few weeks of term. We will be reviewing these guidelines in class on Tues. Mar. 29, three weeks before the due date. But please make sure to read the guidelines as soon after they are posted. And feel free to set up an appointment with me to discuss them before Mar. 29.



Course Reading, Looking and Note-Taking

With the exception the course handbook, all readings are listed by author and date in course schedule, including chapters, entries or page numbers. The readings listed in the course schedule are occasionally repeated. This is because we proceed chronologically, topographically and thematically and focus on both art and architecture in the city of Rome, while the organization of the books in the required and suggested reading varies.

     Please be aware that this is an upper level course and to successfully complete it you should spend at 3-5 hrs per week outside of class reading, studying plans and other images and taking notes on both.  The "Required Reading" varies from 20-50 pp p/wk. Note too that completing your required reading means going to the library and using the 2 books on reserve (Stamper and Kleiner). Please organize your time, keeping in mind that other students will also be using the shelf (xeroxing relevant pages is an option).

     A bibliography of additional reading is provided after the course schedule (under the heading “Course bibliography”). A number of these readings are assigned under the heading "Suggested Reading" in the course schedule. This means that they are not mandatory, but they are strongly recommended. Students who achieve top grades (B+, A- and A) are those who consistently do a significant amount of the recommended reading. Many of the sources cited, moreover, will be indispensable for both your presentation and term paper. The titles are abbreviated in the schedule, but are listed in full in the bibliography at the end of the syllabus. They are available on the reserve shelf in the library, in the stacks in the library, or retrievable from the internet, especially via JSTOR. If you have never downloaded articles from JSTOR the librarians will be more than happy to show you how easy it is! You are also strongly encouraged to look at as many Roman monuments as possible both in person, reproduced in books and available on line (see the list of Internet resources also provided); this is par for the course for anyone taking art history.

     The course-handbook must be brought to each and every class, as it has plans, elevations, reconstructions of monuments that we will consult during class.

     Study guides consisting of a brief summary of the class, a list of the areas and monuments visited, and terms (usually no more than 1 or 2 typed pages) will be posted weekly in advance of each class on SAKAI.  Occasionally images or excerpts from Ancient texts not included in the handbook will also be included. The study guides are intended to help organize your notes, gain an overview of the material and help you revise. They should be printed read before each class and brought to class. Think of them as our on-site blackboard- so like a classroom blackboard they should helpful, although they in no way replace careful note-taking…

     Taking notes in class. As for any course it is imperative to take notes, but because we will almost invariably be standing during class you should consider a liquid-ink pen or a pencil and a hard-back note-book or a clipboard for your note pad.



Please remember to wear sturdy but comfortable shoes and to be equipped for the weather.

Photography. You are allowed to bring your camera or picture-taking phone to class, but may take pictures only after we have finished discussing individual monuments; that is, without interrupting class.

BUT Please note that during class the use of any electronic FOR ANY OTHER REASON THAN PHOTOGRAPHY device is strictly Forbidden


Grade Scale

A =       100% - 95%

B- =      79% - 75%

D+ =     59% - 55%

A- =      94% - 90%

C+ =     74% -70%

D =       54% - 50%

B+ =     89% - 85%

C =       69% - 65%

F=        49% and below

B =       84% - 80%

C- =      64% - 60%



Marking Criteria

Grade: A Work of this quality is rare and should stand out. It may be the case that in some areas of study a modest number of students achieve this mark on some assignments. However, when aggregating the marks awarded for the various elements of assessment, it is not expected that many students will achieve this overall result.  Work that receives a grade of A is characterized by the following:

  • Directly addresses the question or problem raised
  • Provides a coherent argument displaying an extensive knowledge of relevant information
  • Critically evaluates concepts and theory
  • Relates theory to practice
  • Reflects the student's own argument and is not simply a repetition of standard lecture and reference material
  • Is very accurate; has an element of novelty if not originality
  • Provides evidence of reading beyond the required reading
  • Displays an awareness of methodological concerns and displays an awareness of the limitations of current knowledge

Grade: B This is a highly competent level of performance. Students earning this grade may be deemed capable of pursuing more advanced study. Work that receives a grade of B is characterized by the following:

  • Directly addresses the question or problem raised
  • Provides a coherent argument drawing on relevant information
  • Shows some ability to evaluate concepts and theory and to relate theory to practice
  • Reflects the student's own argument and is not simply a repetition of standard lecture and reference material
  • Does not suffer from any major errors or omissions
  • Provides evidence of reading beyond the required reading
  • Displays an awareness of other approaches to the problem area

Grade: C This is an acceptable level of performance. All competent students should be expected to achieve at least this level. Work that receives a grade of C is characterized by the following:

  • Addresses the question but provides only a basic outline of relevant arguments and evidence along the lines of that offered in the lectures and referenced readings
  • Answers are clear but limited
  • Some minor omissions and inaccuracies but no major errors

Grade: C- This level of performance demonstrates some knowledge and an element of understanding but is, on the whole, weak. Students attaining this level of performance should compose a small minority of those in a course and should not expect to progress to more advanced degree work. Work that receives a grade of C- is characterized by the following:

  • Points made in the answer are not always well supported by argument and evidence
  • Relevant points have been omitted from the answer
  • There are some errors in the answer
  • Parts of the question remain unanswered
  • Answers may be unduly brief and possibly in note form

Grade: D These grades indicate that the students in question have barely done enough to persuade the instructor that they should not be failed. Work that receives a grade of D is characterized by the following:

  • Answers lack a coherent grasp of the problems and issues raised in the question
  • Important information has been omitted from the answers and irrelevant points have been included
  • Answers are far too brief

Grade: F Failing grades should be granted to work that indicates to the instructor that the students who submitted it have not benefited in any clear way from academic study. Failing work:

  • Fails to show any knowledge or understanding of the issues raised in the question
  • Reveals fundamental misunderstanding of the subject matter
  • Most of the material in the answer is irrelevant


Academic Honesty is assumed of all students. All forms of academic dishonesty (cheating on exams, plagiarizing papers, etc) will result automatically in an F for the assignment and may result in the student receiving a failing grade for the course (irrespective of the weight of the assignment). All instances of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Dean. Please consult the LCU undergraduate catalog for a full description of the University’s academic integrity policy.





1. Tues. Jan 19








Meeting place:


Suggested Reading:




  • Course content: chronological and thematic overview
  • Methodology
  • Course requirements, logistics, etc.
  • Early Italy: the Latins and their neighbors in central Italy in the Iron Age
  • Early Rome between Magna Grecia and Etruria (8th-6th cent BC)




Coulston and Dodge in Coulston and Dodge 2000: introduction to archeology and topography of Rome; Elsner (1998), Ch. 2 ("A Visual Culture");Coarelli (2007): 1-9 (Introduction); Claridge (1988): 3- 27 (historical overview)



2. Tues. Jan 26



Meeting place:


Required reading:








Suggested Reading:


Rome's foundation: topography and mythology/

Architectural typologies and building materials


Ponte Garibaldi viewing platform on left side (when facing Trastevere)


Coarelli (2007): 1-9 (Introduction), 348-50 (Tiber Island), 307-10 (intro. F Holitorium, et al), 315-19 (Portus Tiberinus, T Portunus and Ara Maxima Hercules), 323-27 (Circus Maximus); Claridge (2010): 39-61 (building materials and techniques, architectural orders and dimensions, building types, major public works)- xeroxing the pages from Claridge is strongly recommended, as they will come in handy throughout course; on bldg. techniques and construction materials see also Coarelli's Appendix;


Coulston and Dodge in Coulston and Dodge 2000: introduction to archeology and topography of Rome; Smith in Coulston and Dodge (2000), esp. 24-35: early and Archaic Rome; Wiseman (2004): Roman Myths




3. Tues. Feb. 2


Meeting place:


Required reading:






Suggested Reading:

Monuments and identity: Kings to Early Republic


Palatine Hill/Roman Forum entrance on Via di San Gregorio


Coarelli (2007): 130-38 (intro. Palatine, Iron Age huts, western temples), 42-47 (intro R Forum), 91-92 (Archaic cemetery), 81-89 (Via Sacra, Regia, T Vesta, House Vestal Virgins), 50-57 (Shrine Venus Cloacina, Comitium, Curia Hostilia, Black Stone), 65-66 (T Saturn), 74-77 (T Castor and Pollux and Juturna); Stamper (2005): 6-10 (Kings of Rome) and 34-40 (early Republican R Forum)


Cornell in Coulston and Dodge (2000): Rome in the Mid-Republic; Smith in Coulston and Dodge (2000), esp. 24-35: early and Archaic Rome; Wiseman (2004): Roman Myths




Sign up for oral presentations




4. Tues. Feb. 9


Meeting place:


Required reading:









Suggested Reading:









Republican Rome: triumphs, temples, theatres, honor, fame and consensus


Capitoline Hill by equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius


Coarelli (2007): 28-36 (intro. Capitoline, T JOM, Area Capitolina), 40 (T Juno Moneta, Auguraculum), 260-67 (intro C Martius, Circus Flaminius), 270-71 (T Apollo Sosianus and T Bellona), 275-85 (Area Sacra and Theater Pompey), 289-90 (Saepta Julia), 307-10 (intro. F Holitorium, et al), 313-19 (Temples F Holitorium, T Portunus and Round T); Stamper (2005): Ch. 1 & 2 (T JOM), 44-48 (Area Sacra Largo Argentina), 49-50 (triumph, victory temples), 53-56 (temples southern Campus Martius), 59-68 (temples F Holitorium, T Portunus), 68-81 (Round T, Area Sacra Largo Argentina), 84-90 (Theatre Pompey)


Beard (2007), esp. 42-53, 92-106: triumphal route/culture; Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), pp. 219-227: (entertainment/ theatres); Cornell in Coulston and Dodge (2000): Rome in mid-Republic; DeRose Evans (2009): Sculpture Theatre Pompey; Flower (2004): triumphs, funerals, spectacle & politics; Kuttner (1999): Theatre Pompey; Kuttner (2004): Art in Republican Rome; Orlin (1997): Republican temples & politics; Patterson (1992): Rome topography Republic to Empire; Shelton (1998): 251-52, 329-31: triumphs & spectacles; Ziokowski (1988): Round T

Fri. Feb. 12



Test 1 due via email no later than 7 pm

early tests welcome, no late tests accepted





5. Tues. Feb. 16


Meeting place:


Required reading:







Suggested Reading:







Caesar and Augustus: power and dynasty monumentalized


Piazza Farnese fountain on right when facing Palazzo Farnese


Coarelli (2007): 42-54 (R Forum overview, Bas. Aemilia, Porticus Gaius & Lucius, Comitium), 57-59 (Curia), 64-5 (Rostra), 71-75 (Bas. Julia, T Castor and Pollux), 79-81 (Divus Iulius, Arch of Augustus), 103-113 (F Caesar, F Augustus); Kleiner (1992): 59-61 (intro Augustus and Augustan art) and 99-103 (F Augustus); Stamper (2005): 90-104 (intro Caesar, F of Caesar and Caesarian R Forum),130-150 (intro Augustus, F of Augustus and Augustan R Forum)


Gurval (1997): Divus Julius/Comet; Kellum (1997): esp. 164-7 (F Augustus); Patterson (1992): Rome topography Republic to Empire; Rose (2005): esp. 28-36 (Parthian Arch/ Arch of Augustus); Von Blanckenhagen (1954) Imperial Fora; Walker in Coulston and Dodge 2000: 61-75 (Augustan patronage); Ward Perkins (1981): Ch. 1 ("Augustan Rome"); Zanker (1988), 79-82, 98-99 (Augustan R Forum, Parthians) and 185-215 (F Augustus)



1. Forum of Julius Caesar

2. Temple to the Deified Julius Caesar



6. Tues. Feb. 23


Meeting place:


Required reading:






Suggested Reading:








The Campus Martius in the Age of Augustus


Side of the Ara Pacis Museum by inscription opposite Mausoleum of Augustus


Coarelli (2007): 260-272 (intro C Martius, Theater Marcellus, T Apollo Sosianus, Portico Octavia), 285-286 (Baths of Agrippa), 299-304 (Ara Pacis and Mausoleum); Kleiner (1992): 59-61 (intro to Augustus and Augustan art), 90-99 (Ara Pacis and Mausoleum); Stamper (2005): 105-108 (Augustus), 126-129 (Augustan Campus Martius)


Clarke (2003): 19-28 (monuments northern C Martius); Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), 219-227 (entertainment/ theatres); Davies (2000): 13-19, 76-78 (horologium) 137-42 (mausoleum); Kleiner and Buxton (2008): Ara Pacis; Holliday (1990): Ara Pacis; Heslin (2007): horologium;  Patterson (1992): Rome topography Republic to Empire;Rose (1990): Ara Pacis; Strong (1988): 80-84 (Ara Pacis); Thomas (1996): Pantheon Agrippa to S Severus; Walker in Coulston and Dodge 2000: 61-75 (Augustan patronage); Ward Perkins (1981): Ch. 1 ("Augustan Rome"); Zanker (1988), esp. 72-75, 139-43, 156-9, 172-83 (Augustan C Martius)



3. Mausoleum of Augustus

4. Augustan Sundial (aka Horologium)



7. Tues. Mar. 1



Meeting Place:


Required reading:




Suggested reading:


Self-representation: portraiture from the Late Republic to Vespasian

 The Garden Fresco from the villa of Livia at Prima Porta


Palazzo Massimo entrance (Piazza dei Cinquecento, by Termini)


Kleiner (1992): Ch. 1: 31-47 (Republican Portraiture), Ch. 2, 59-69 (intro to Augustus and Augustan portraiture), 75-89 (Augustan female portraiture and freedmen portraits)


Christ (1997); toga/ togate portraits; Fejfer (2009): Roman portraits, esp. Part I (honorific portraiture), 181-213 (male body types), 262-270 (Republican portraiture), and 331-426 (imperial portraiture); Kellum (1994): garden fresco; Kleiner (1992): Ch. 3: 123-141 (Julio-Claudian portraiture); Stevenson (1998): honorific nude portrait statues; Smith (1981): Republican Portraits; Strong (1988): Preface to the First Edition and Ch. 1 ("The Beginnings"), Ch. 2 (The Mid and Late Republic), Ch. 4 (Transitions to the Empire and Augustus); Zanker (1988): Introduction, Ch. 1, esp. 5-25, Ch. 2, esp. 33-65, and. Ch. 3 (Late Republican portraits/ Augustan portraits)



5. The "General of Tivoli" (marble portrait statue)

6. Garden Fresco from the villa at Prima Porta



Thurs. Mar. 3


*Test 2 due via email no later than 7 pm

early tests welcome, no late tests accepted




Fri. Mar. 4-

Sun. Mar. 13


*********SPRING BREAK*********




8. Tues. Mar. 15


Meeting Place:



Required reading:







Suggested reading:






The re-shaping of central Rome from Nero to the Flavians


Metro stop Colosseo (B line): by Roman sarcophagus recycled as a fountain (past newspaper stand)


Coarelli (2007): 159-160 (intro Col. Valley), 177-186 (intro Esquilne and Domus Aurea), 164-172 (Col., Ludus Magnus), 125-128 (T Peace), 113-115 (F Transistorium); Kleiner (1992): 167-173 (intro Civil War AD 68-69 and Flavian Dynasty) and 179-81 (sculptural display T Peace), 192-194 (F Transistorium), Stamper (2005): 151-172 (intro Flavians, Flavian rebuilding of JOM, T Peace, T Vespasian & Titus, F Transistorium, Arch of Titus)


Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), 227-240 (entertainment/ amphitheatres); Noreña (2003) T of Peace; Pollard (2009): T Peace; Taub (1993): Forma Urbis; Von Blanckenhagen (1954) Imperial Fora; Ward Perkins (1981): 56-61 (Domus Aurea) and 63-84 (Flavians); Welch (2007), 147-62 (Domus Aurea and Colosseum)


9. Tues. Mar. 22


Meeting Place:


Required Reading:





Suggested reading:











The re-shaping of central Rome from Nero to the Flavians, cont.


Palatine Hill/Roman Forum entrance on Via di San Gregorio


Coarelli (2007): 177-186 (intro Esquilne and Domus Aurea), 66-67 (T Vespasian & Titus), 97-88 (Arch of Titus); Kleiner 183-190 (Arch of Titus); Stamper (2005): 151-172 (intro Flavians, Flavian rebuilding of JOM, T Peace, T Vespasian & Titus, F Transistorium, Arch of Titus);


Albertson (2001): Colossus Nero; Davies 2000: 19-27, 67-71, 142-48 (Arch of Titus); Strong (1988) 122-132 (Domus Aurea, Arch of Titus); Thomas (2004): Equus Domitiani and Domitan patronage R Forum area; Ward Perkins (1981): 56-61 (Domus Aurea) and 63-84 (Flavians); Welch (2007), 147-62 (Domus Aurea and Colosseum)



7. Colossus of Nero

8. Arch of Titus

9. Equus Domitiani (Equestrian statue of Domitian)


10. Tues. Mar. 29



Meeting Place:


Required Reading:



Suggested reading:

Trajan's Forum Complex/ Imperial Fora (at Museum of the Fori imperiali in Trajan's markets)


Column of Trajan, in small park on square by column


Coarelli (2007): 115-125 (Trajan's F and markets); Kleiner (1992): 212-223 (sculpture in Trajan's F); Stamper (2005): Ch. 10 (Trajan's F)


Davies (1997) and (2000): 127-135 (column of Trajan); Packer (2001): Trajan's F (see for plans and reconstructions); Strong (1988): 141-153 (Trajan's F); Von Blanckenhagen (1954) "The Imperial Fora"; Ward Perkins (1981): 84-95 (Trajan's patronage in Rome) and Ch 4 ("Materials and Methods: The Roman Architectural Revolution")



10. Trajan’s Column

11. Trajan’s Markets


*Discussion of Term Paper:

please read guidelines in advance of class and come with questions*


11. Tues. Apr. 5



Meeting Place:


Required Reading:









Suggested reading:










Monumentalizing Rome under the Antonines / The representation of the imperial persona: Trajan to Commodus


Pantheon Square, by fountain


Coarelli (2007): 98-99 (T Venus & Roma), 286-89 (Pantheon), 291-93 (Hadrianeum), 296-99 (columns M. Aurelius and A. Pius); Kleiner (1992): 207-212 (intro to Trajan; portraiture of Trajan and Plotina) 237-42 (intro to Hadrian; portraiture Hadrian and Sabina), 253-56 (Arco di Portogallo Reliefs and Adventus Relief), 267-80 (intro Antonines and Antonine portraiture), 283-85 (intro Antonine State Reliefs and Hadrianeum reliefs), 288-95 (Marcus Aurelius Reliefs), 295-301 (column M. Aurelius); Stamper (2005): Ch. 11 (Pantheon) and 212-14 (Hadrianeum), 206-212 (T Venus and Roma)


Clarke (2003): Ch. 2, esp. 42-53 (column M. Aurelius comp. to column Trajan); Davies (2000): 34-48, 79-83 and 158-171 (Mausoleum Hadrian, Pantheon, columns A. Pius and M. Aurelius); Hughes (2009): Province Reliefs from Hadrianeum; Pirson (1996): column of M. Aurelius; Strong (1988): 206-11 (column M. Aurelius); Thomas (1996): Pantheon Agrippa to S Severus; Ward-Perkins (1981): Ch 4 ("Materials and Methods: The Roman Architectural Revolution) and 111-18 (Pantheon)




12. Column of Marcus Aurelius

13. Hadrianeum (Temple to deified Hadrian, with reliefs in Capitoline Museum)



12. Tues. Apr. 12


Meeting Place:


Required Reading:




Suggested reading:

The representation of the imperial persona: Severans to Constantine


Capitoline Hill by equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius


Coarelli (2007): 60-63 (Arch S Severus), Kleiner (1992): 316-29 (intro to Severans and Severan portraiture), 329-32 (Arch S. Severus), 357-384 (intro. to 3rd cent. and 3rd cent. portraiture), 431-444 (intro to Constantine and Constantinian portraiture)


Brilliant (1967): Arch S Severus; Clarke (2003): Ch. 2, esp. 53-67 (Arches of S. Severus and Constantine); Gorrie (2004): Julia Domna patronage; Fejfer (2009): Roman portraits, esp. 331-426 (imperial portraiture); Harrison (1967): Constantinian portraiture; Smith (1985): imperial portraiture; Smith (1997): early 4th century imperial portraiture; Strong (1988): 228 (Severan portraiture), 250-255 and 264-5 (third century portraiture), 264-266 (Tetrarchs), 278-280 (Constantinian portraiture); Wright (1987): Constantinian portraiture




14. Arch of Septimius Severus





13. Tues. Apr. 19


Meeting Place:


Required Reading:




Suggested reading:


Monumentalizing Rome: the Severans and Constantine


Arch of Constantine, on Via di San Gregorio side


Coarelli (2007): 155 (Septizodium), 160-163 (Arch Constantine), 327-331 (Baths of Caracalla); Kleiner (1992): 338-339 (sculpture Baths of Caracalla), 444-455 Arch Constantine (on the Arch see also see also pp. 251-53 and 288-95)


Clarke (2003): Ch. 2, esp. 53-67 (Arches of S. Severus and Constantine); Lusnia (2004): Septizodium; Marlowe (2006): Arch Constantine; Marvin (1983): Sculptures Baths Caracalla; Strong (1988): 276-278 (Arch Constantine); Wilson Jones (2000): Arch Constantine


*********TERM PAPER DUE**********

In hard copy in class and in electronic form (= via email) by end of day = by 7pm



Fri. Apr. 22



Meeting Place:






***Review session for Final Exam***





 10-12 AM


Remember to bring review sheet ,

to study review images posted on Sakai (in PPoint)

and to come to class with questions based on your revision




Sat, Apr. 23


Mon-Thu Apr 25-28




*********************Final EXAM************************


Day, Time and Place TBA



Suggested Reading: Library Reserve and Stacks, Internet

  • · Aicher, P. J. (2006), Rome Alive: a source-guide to the Ancient City   [DG13 .A37 2004]
  • · Albertson, F.C. (2001) " Zenodorus's "Colossus of Nero" MAAR 46: 95-118 [JSTOR]
  • · Anderson, J. (1982) "Domitian, the Argiletum and the Temple of Peace" AJA 86/1, 101-110. [JSTOR]
  • · Barton, E. (2007) "The scandal of the Arena" Representations 27 (1989): 1-36 [JSTOR]
  • · Beard, M. (2007), The Roman Triumph[DG89 .B43 2007]
  • · Beard, M., North, J.A. and Price S.R.F. (1998), Religions of Rome 2vols. [BL802 .B43 1998]
  • · Boardman, J.ed. (2001), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World. [DG231 .O84 2001]
  • · Boatwright, M.T., Gargola, D.J. and Talbert, R. (2004)The Romans: from Village to Empire. [DG209 .B58 2004]
  • · Boyle, A.J. and  Dominik, W.J. eds. (2003), Flavian Rome: culture, image, text. [DG286 .F53 2003]
  • · Brilliant, R. (1967) "The Arch of Septimius Severus in the Roman Forum" MAAR 29 [JSTOR]
  • · Carter, M.J. (2006/2007) "Gladiatorial combat: the rules of engagement" CJ 102.2: 97-114 [JSTOR]
  • · Christ, A. T. (1997) "The Masculine Ideal of "the Race That Wears the Toga" AJ 56/ 2, 24-30 [JSTOR]
  • · Claridge, A. (1998) Rome. An Archaeological Guide. [DG62 .C53]
  • · Clarke, J. (2003) Art in the Lives of Ordinary Romans: Visual Representation and Non-Elite Viewers in Italy, 100 B.C.–A.D. 315 [N72 .S6 C58 2003]
  • · Coarelli, F. (2001) The Colosseum.  [DG68.1 .C6513 2001]
  • · Connoly, P. and Dodge, H. (1998) The Ancient City: life in classical Athens & Rome [DE59 .C59 1998]
  • · Cooley, A. and Pormann, P.E. (2009) The first emperor and the queen of inscriptions: Augustus in his own words. Classics in Discussion, University of Warwick, Dept. of Classics, Jan. 2010: www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/classics/podcast
  • · Coulston, J. and Dodge, H. eds. (2000) Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City [DG63 .A57 2000]
  • · D’Ambra, E. ed. (1993) Roman Art in Context. [N5760 .R64]
  • · Davies, P. (1997) "The politics of perpetuation: Trajan's Column and the art of commemoration" AJA 101/1: 41-65 [JSTOR]
  • · Davies, P. (2000) Death and the Emperor: Roman imperial funerary monuments, from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius [NB1875 .D38 2000]
  • · Elsner, J. (1998) Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph [N 5760 .E47 1998]
  • · Elsner, J. (2005) "Sacrifice and Narrative on the Arch of the Argentarii at Rome" Journal of Roman Archaeology 18, 83-98 (prof. has copy)
  • · Fejfer, J. (2009) Roman Portraits in Context (available through library website = Pegasus- via EBL)
  • · Flower, H. I. (2004) "Spectacle and Political Culture in the Roman Republic" in Flower, H. I. ed. The Cambridge Companion to the RomanRepublic, 322-342 [DG235 .C36 2004]
  • Gorrie, C. (2004) "Julia Domna's Building Patronage, Imperial Family Roles and the Severan Revival of Moral Legislation" Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 53/ 1, 61-72 [JSTOR]
  • · Hannestad, N. (1986) Roman Art and Imperial Policy. [N5763 .H3513 1988]
  • · Holliday, P.J. (1990): "Time, history, and ritual on the Ara Pacis Augustae" AB 72/4, 542-57 [JSTOR]
  • · Kellum, B. (1994) "The construction of landscape in Augustan Rome: the Garden Room at the villa ad Gallinas" AB 76.2: 212-24. [JSTOR]
  • · Kellum, B. (1997) "Concealing/revealing: gender and the play of meaning in the monuments of Augustan Rome " in T. Habinek and A. Schiesaro (eds), The Roman Cultural Revolution, 158-181 [DG 279 .R618 1997]
  • · Kleiner, D.E.E. and Buxton, B. (2008) "Pledges of Empire: The Ara Pacis and the Donations of Rome" AJA 112, 57-89 [JSTOR]
  • · Kuttner, A. (1995):"Republican Rome looks at Pergamon" Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 97, 157-78 [JSTOR]
  • · Kuttner, A. (1999) "Culture and History at Pompey's Museum" TAPA 129, 343-373  [JSTOR]
  • · Kuttner, A. (2004) "Roman Art During the Republic" in Flower, H. I. ed. The Cambridge Companion to the RomanRepublic, 294- 321 [DG235 .C36 2004]
  • · Harrison, E. (1967) "The Constantinian Portrait" DOP 21, 81-96 and figures [JSTOR]
  • · Heslin, P. (2007) "Augustus, Domitian and the So-Called Horologium Augusti" JRS 97, 1-20 [JSTOR]
  • · Hughes, J. (2009) "Personifications and the Ancient Viewer: the Case of the Hadrianeum 'Nations'" Art History 32/1, 1-20 (available on-line through library; prof. also has copy)
  • · Ling, R. (1991) Roman Painting. [ND120 .L56 1991]
  • · Lusnia, S. (2004) "Urban Planning and Sculptural Display in Severan Rome: Reconstructing the Septizodium and its Role in Dynastic Politics" AJA 108/4, 517-544
  • · MacDonald, W. (1976) The Pantheon: design, meaning, and progeny. [NA323 .M34 1976]
  • · MacDonald, W. (1982) The Architecture of the Roman Empire (2 vols). [NA 310 .M2 1982]
  • · Marlowe, E. (2006) "Framing the Sun: the Arch of Constantine and the Roman cityscape" AB 88.2: 223-42 [JSTOR]
  • · Marvin, M. (1983) "Freestanding Sculptures from the Baths of Caracalla" AJA 87/3, 347-384
  • · Noreña, C.F. (2003) "Medium and message in Vespasian’s Templum Pacis" MAAR 48: 25-43 [JSTOR]
  • · Orlin, E. (1997) Temples, Religion and Politics in Republican Rome. New York : E.J. Brill, 1997, in series: Mnemosyne, bibliotheca classica Batava. Supplementum 164 [BL 805 .O75 1997]
  • · Packer, J. (1997) The Forum of Trajan in Rome. A Study of the Monuments [NA 312 .P23 1997]
  • · Patterson, J. (1992), "The City of Rome: from Republic to Empire" JRS 82: 186-215 [JSTOR]
  • · Platner, S.B. and Ashby, T. (2002 repr.)Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome [DG16.P685 2002 (Ref.)]
  • · Pirson, F. (1996) "Style and Message on the Column of Marcus Aurelius" PBSR 64, 139-179 [JSTOR]
  • · Pollard, E. A. (2009), "Natural History and the Flavian Templum Pacis: Botanical Imperialism in First-Century"  Journal of World History 20/ 3, 309-338 [Project MUSE]
  • · Rose, C.B. (1990) “Princes” and Barbarians on the Ara Pacis" AJA 94.3: 453-67 [JSTOR]
  • · Rose, C.B. (2005) "The Parthians in Augustan Rome" AJA 109.1: 21-75 [JSTOR]
  • · Scarre, C. (1995) The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. [G 1033 .S28 1995]
  • · Sear, F. (1982) Roman Architecture. [NA310 .S44 1983]
  • · Shelton, J.-A. (1998) As the Romans Did. A Sourcebook in Roman Social History [HN 10 .R7 S45 1998]
  • · Smith, R.R.R. (1981) "Greeks, Foreigners, and Roman Republican Portraits" JRS 71, 24-38 [JSTOR]
  • · Smith, R.R.R. (1985): "Roman Portraits: Honors, Empresses, and Late Emperors" JRS, 209-221 (review article)  [JSTOR]
  • · Smith, R.R.R. (1997) "The Public Image of Licinius I: Portrait Sculpture and Imperial Ideology in the Early Fourth Century" JRS 87, 170-202 [JSTOR]
  • · Stevenson, T. (1998) "The ‘problem’ with nude honorific statuary and portraits in late republican and Augustan Rome" Greece and Rome 45.1: 45-69. [JSTOR]
  • · Strong, D. (1988) Roman Art, 2nd ed. [N 5760 .S68 1988]
  • · Taub, L. (1993), "The Historical Function of the Forma Urbis Roma" Imago Mundi 45, 9-19 [JSTOR]
  • · Thomas, E. (1996) "The Architectural History of the Pantheon in Rome from Agrippa to Septimius Severus" Hephaistos 14, 163-186
  • · Thomas, M. L. (2004), "(Re)locating Domitian's Horse of Glory: The "Equus Domitiani" and Flavian Urban Design" MAAR 49: 21-46  [JSTOR]
  • · von Blanckenhagen, P. H. (1954) "The Imperial Fora" JSAH 13/4, 21-26
  • · Wallace-Hadrill, A. (1993) Augustan Rome.  London: Bristol Classical. [DG279 .W35. 1993]
  • · Ward-Perkins, J.B. (1981) Roman Imperial Architecture [NA310 .W34 1994 ]
  • · Wardle, D. (1996), "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol" Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 45/ 2, 208-222 [JSTOR]
  • · Welch, K. (2007)The Roman Amphitheatre: from its origins to the Colosseum [NA313 .W45 2007]
  • · Wilson Jones, M. (2000) "Genesis and mimesis: the design of the Arch of Constantine in Rome" JSAH 59/1, 50-77 [JSTOR]
  • · Wiseman, T.P. (2004) The Myths of Rome. [BL803 .W57 2004]
  • · Wiseman, T.P. “The God of the Lupercal” Journal of Roman Studies 85 (1995): 1-22
  • · Woolf, G., ed. (2003) Cambridge Illustrated History of the Roman World. [DG209 .C36 2003]
  • · Wright, D.H. (1987) "The true face of Constantine the Great" DOP 41: 493-507 [JSTOR]
  • · Zanker, P. (1988), The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus [N5760 .Z36 1988].
  • Ziolkowski, A. (1988) "Mummius' Temple of Hercules Victor and the Round Temple on the Tiber" Phoenix 42/4: 309-33 [JSTOR]

INTERNET image resources

  • · Vroma image archive: www.vroma.org accurate and reliable digital archive of Ancient Greek and Roman artworks; can be downloaded in jpg format
  • · ARTSTOR:  A digital library of nearly one million images that can be viewed on-line (in full, in zoom detail); can be stored on-line in personal folders; and can be downloaded in jpg format
  • · Rome Reborn:  www.romereborn.virginia.edu (3D reconstructions of ancient Rome)
  • · Digital Roman Forum Project http://dlib.etc.ucla.edu/projects/Forum/ (Good discussions and bibliography of monuments in the Forum Romanum and beyond)
  • · Ara Pacis Augustae: http://cdm.reed.edu/ara-pacis (good images and some basic information on the monument)