Loyola University Chicago Style Guide
As part of an institution of higher education, it is important to be accurate, clear, and consistent in communication. University Marketing and Communication maintains a University style guide as a resource for the preferred usage of common words, names, styles, and other questions that may frequently come up when producing various communications.
In general, Loyola follows the Chicago Manual of Style, one of the two most followed style guides. Its focus is to make the English language clear, consistent, and readable. For questions that cannot be answered in our own University style guide, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, which is available at chicagomanualofstyle.org. Loyola also uses the Merriam-Webster dictionary, which can be found online at merriam-webster.com. When in doubt, check one of these resources for additional help in determining the correct spelling, formatting, or grammar.
The following guidelines are intended to be helpful, but it is important to acknowledge context and audience when developing content. It may be more appropriate in certain circumstances to deviate from what is listed below. In these instances—whether it's more formal or casual—we ask that you be thoughtful in making these decisions and be consistent.
When writing campus names, schools and buildings, refer to this StyleGuideAppendix for guidance.
For additional help crafting copy, please refer to the end of this resource for some simple tips to give your words the greatest impact.
Please contact University Marketing and Communication at firstname.lastname@example.org with questions or suggestions for making Loyola University Chicago's style guide more helpful.
As a rule, use full-word spellings in narrative text except where space is limited. If using abbreviations, use them consistently.
Alumnus is male; alumni is plural. Alumni is used for mixed-gender groups.
Alumna is female; alumnae is plural.
Alum(s) is neutral and can be used in informal contexts.
List alumni in text with their degree or school and class year as follows: John Doe (BA ’87) or John Doe (SSOM ’87). When listing multiple degrees, do so in chronological order: Jane doe (BS '92, MA '96). The decision to use degree or school is up to the writer, according to what is appropriate in context.
List alumni in text with their degree or, in rare cases (like Mundelein), school and class year as follows: John Doe (BA '87) or Jane Doe (MUND '87). The decision to use degree or school is up to the writer, according to what is appropriate in context.
Medical students whose residency occurred at Loyola can be listed as follows: Jane Doe (MD '85, LUMC Resident '90).
When listing multiple degrees, do so in chronological order: Jane Doe (JFRC '90-'91, BS '92, MA '96).
See also degrees.
In addresses, north, south, east, and west are abbreviated.
When listing a full address, abbreviate Ave., Blvd., and St.; spell out Road: 6244 N. Winthrop Ave., 1032 N. Sheridan Road.
Michigan Avenue is always spelled out: 820 N. Michigan Avenue.
In running text, it is preferred to spell out the entire address: Students are welcome to tour the International House at 6244 North Winthrop Avenue.
On formal invitations or other similar items, it may seem more appropriate to not use abbreviations. Whenever that decision is made though, it must be consistent with all associated materials.
For buildings and spaces on the Lake Shore Campus that do not have an address, a more general location can be given: San Francisco Hall, St. Ignatius Community Plaza between Sheridan Road and Rosemont Avenue.
For invitations or items promoting alumni events, it is advised to include the specific street address.
See also campus locations.
a.m. and p.m.
Lowercase with periods.
Avoid starting a sentence with and.
Also avoid using the ampersand (&) symbol in place of the word unless it is part of a proper name or if space is a concern.
Arrupe College of Loyola University Chicago
On second reference, use Arrupe College.
art exhibits and art works
Italicize the name of an exhibit: LUMA is proud to present its latest exhibit, Arts Botanica.
Individual art works, paintings, and photographs are also italicized: The Piano Lesson, The girl with a Pearl Earring.
See also titles of works.
Beijing Center, the
Although the Beijing Center is sometimes known as TBC, do not capitalize the preceding the in running text: Students can spend time at the John Felice Rome Center and the Beijing Center.
board of trustees
Do not capitalize unless it’s part of the proper name: John Doe is chairperson of the Loyola University Chicago Board of Trustees, but Joe Doe currently serves on the boards of trustees of Loyola University New Orleans and Fairfield University.
The board of trustees is a singular noun: The board of trustees is meeting tomorrow night at the Schreiber Center.
Avoid starting a sentence with but.
Stands for Sisters of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Do not include periods.
Capitalize only when part of the name: Lake Shore Campus, Water Tower Campus, Lake Shore and Water Tower campuses.
Lowercase campus when using an informal name: Rogers Park campus, Gold Coast campus, Maywood campus, lakeside campus.
See also capitalization; Beijing Center, the; Health Sciences Division; and John Felice Rome Center.
When listing the location of an event, use the following format: [Building Name], [Hall Name or Room Number], [Floor], [Campus or Street Address, optional]. Keep the audience in mind when deciding if it's necessary to specify an address or the campus:
Corboy Law Center, Kasbeer Hall, 15th Floor
Corboy Law Center, Kasbeer Hall, 15th Floor, Water Tower Campus
Corboy Law Center, Kasbeer Hall, 15th Floor, 25 E. Pearson St.
Many proper names combine a formal name with a generic or descriptive term: Loyola University Chicago, Centers of Excellence, President Maguire, the Department of Communication, the Dean’s Fund for Excellence. Capitalize only when using the full formal title. After the first mention, an official name is often replaced by the generic term alone, which should be lowercased: The Department of Communication is pleased to announce a new position. The position will greatly increase the department’s efficiency. See also Centers of Excellence, president, and titles.
When it is being used as a synonym for Loyola University Chicago, University should be capitalized. See also University.
When the is preceding a proper name, even if it is part of the formal title, is lowercased in running text: Please donate to the Loyola Annual Fund. This rule does not apply to titles of works. See also titles of works.
When referring to the formal titles of two similar entities, do not capitalize the generic term they have in common even though it would be capitalized if used alone: Sheridan and Belmont roads, Hermitage and Paulina avenues, Chicago and Mississippi rivers. See also campus.
Centers of Excellence
Capitalize when referring to the Centers of Excellence. If referring to one specific center, capitalize its title: the Center for Integrated Risk Management and Corporate Governance. After that, if referring to it by the word center alone, it does not need to be capitalized. The Center for Integrated Risk Management and Corporate Governance is a new initiative. The center opened last year. See appendix for full list.
On an invitation or program, first reference: Rev. Michael J. Garanzini, S.J., Chancellor, Loyola University Chicago.
Capitalize only if referring to the global Catholic Church as a whole: Pope Francis will be speaking about the future of the Church in his speech.
The following cities stand alone and do not require state/country identifications: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Beijing, Rome, Vatican City, Washington, DC
For cities, such as Maywood, Illinois, and Woodstock, Illinois, where Loyola has campuses or centers, consider context when deciding whether to include the state name.
Put an apostrophe before a class year: ’87. Capitalize when referring to a class as a group: the Class of '87.
Alumni are listed as follows: John Doe (BA ’87). Multiple degrees should be listed chronologically: Jane Doe (BA '92, MA '96).
For current students, list their expected graduation year in running text.
Students who will be soon graduating from Arrupe College will be earning associate degrees: Jane Doe (AA '17).
See also alumnus/alumna/alumni.
Do not use a colon after a verb or a preposition.
Correct: A resume should include educational background, work experience, and any knowledge of foreign language.
Incorrect: A resume should include: educational background, work experience, and any knowledge of foreign language.
If what follows the colon if a full sentence, capitalize the first word: His goal is simple: to improve graduation rates. His goal is simple: He needs to help them graduate.
Use one space after a colon.
Use a comma before the last item in a series of three or more: Every heart beats true for the red, white, and blue.
Do not put spaces around the em dash. Do not substitute hyphens for em dashes.
Em dash shows a break or dramatic pause: When I opened the door, there he was—with a knife.
En dash indicates a range, such as a span of time or numbers: 1960s–1970s. To format, hit space-hyphen-space to autoformat in Word, and then go back and delete the spaces.
Hyphen is used in compounds: 7-year-old girl. See also hyphens.
Do not separate month and year sequences with a comma: June 2006, not June, 2006.
In an invitation or referring to the events in the future, list the date first, followed by time and then location of the event: December 14, 6 p.m., Damen Student Center.
When listing a month, day, and year in running text, place commas after the day and year: The dinner held December 14, 2015, was a great success.
In running text, spell out the names of months unless space is an issue. In those cases, abbreviate.
Do not use ordinal numbers, such as 1st, 22nd, 30th.
Spell as two words.
Do not use periods: BA, PhD, MD, RN, AA.
Since the information is parenthetical, enclose it in commas in running text: John Doe, MD, hails from Altoona, Iowa.
Form the plural by adding s with no apostrophe: MAs, PhDs.
Capitalize the formal name of a degree: Master of Science in Organizational Development.
Do not capitalize an informal degree: master’s in environmental science, MA in writing.
See also alumnus/alumna/alumni.
Use lowercase, unless the word is normally capitalized in text: German and Russian department, biology department, sociology department.
Capitalize a department’s full, formal name: Department of Anthropology, University Marketing and Communication.
el, referring to train
To indicate an omission in quoted text, used three spaced periods preceded by any other necessary mark of punctuation, including any period of a previous complete sentence, which always precedes the three spaced periods. Use sparingly.
- In the middle of a sentence: “I had an amazing time studying in Rome. I can’t wait to back . . . in 20 years.”
- At the end of a sentence: “I had an amazing time studying in Rome. . . . I can’t wait to go back and visit my friends in 20 years.”
Use a hyphen. No need to capitalize.
These are singular nouns referring to groups; use them as such: Our faculty is world-class. To make faculty or staff plural, use staff members or members of the faculty, etc. There is usually no need to capitalize faculty or staff in text.
See religious orders.
Use freshman when referring to a single student and freshmen for two or more. The freshman class is also appropriate.
Health care, whether it is used as a noun or an adjective, should be written as two words.
Health Sciences Division
Use Health Sciences Division when referring to the Stritch School of Medicine, Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing, the biomedical programs in the Graduate School, and its other institutes and centers. Use Health Sciences Campus when just referencing the schools and centers located in Maywood, Illinois.
Avoid beginning a sentence with however. You may, however, offset it with commas.
When compound modifiers precede a noun, hyphenation makes for easier reading: open-mouthed gape; 50-year reunion, service-learning opportunities.
The following terms should be written as one word and not hyphenated: nonprofit, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, multipurpose, preseason, multinational, postgraduate.
When a prefix is placed before a word beginning with a capital letter, it is hyphenated: Non-Catholic is hyphenated, but nonreligious is not.
Adverbs that end in –ly don’t need hyphens when used as modifiers: happily married couple. The word early, although it ends in –ly, does take a hyphen because it is an adjective: early-morning light.
Avoid using impact as a verb unless in a physical context. In other words, resist using impact as a verb meaning “to affect.” Although this usage is becoming more common in informal speech and writing, it is hyperbolic and widely considered incorrect. Consider using affect or influence instead. See Chicago Manual 5.202.
Do not use a space between initials: E.M. Forster.
Jr. and Sr.
In modern usage, Jr. and Sr. are no longer preceded by a comma: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was a civil rights leader.
John Felice Rome Center
Accepted abbreviation for CTA trains is ‘L.’ One quotation mark on each side and capitalized. This information is from the CTA Media Relations department.
Loyola is the entire title of the magazine: The subject was mentioned in the New York Times, Chicago Sun-Times, Chicago Tribune Magazine, and Loyola magazine.
Loyola University Chicago
Loyola University Chicago, Loyola, or LUC are acceptable. Avoid Loyola University or Loyola Chicago.
Do not capitalize unless there is a proper noun: anthropology major; English major. See also departments.
Capitalize when referring to the religious service.
In text, first reference should include full name. In later references, use the last name only. Repeat the first name only to avoid confusion when writing about two people with the same last name.
For maiden or birth names, set off the previous name with parentheses: Jane (Johnson) Smith (JFRC '61).
See also religious orders and titles.
Nonprofit is one word, without hyphens, when used either as adjective or a noun. Not-for-profit, which is also acceptable, however, does take hyphens.
Spell out one through nine, use numerals for 10 and up.
Spell out any number beginning a sentence.
For ages, measurements, and percentages, always use numerals: 6-year-old girl, 4 percent, 2 inches.
photo captions and credits
When the photo depicts an event or meeting, include both location and full date, in that order.
When including a title, place it before the individual’s name: Interim President John P. Pelissero, PhD; Professor Patricia Mooney-Melvin.
When listing the names of those featured in the photo, begin with the most prominent person in the frame. If no one is the main focus, list the names from left to right. Use your discretion when deciding to list an individual or to use a more generic caption.
Photo credits should be placed in parenthesis at the end of the caption after the final sentence: Sarah Cullen Fuller, right, won the Transformative Education Award at the 11th Annual Diversity Awards Reception held inside the Damen Student Center on Friday, April 15, 2016. The event was a part of Loyola's Weekend of Excellence, celebrating transformative education. (Photo: Natalie Battaglia)
On first reference, place the title in quotes and include the plan’s full name. On second reference, the abbreviated name without any formatting is preferred: Recently, Loyola announced its five-year strategic plan, “Plan 2020: Building a More Just, Humane, and Sustainable World.” To learn more about Plan 2020, visit our website at LUC.edu/plan2020.
Use numerals and write out the word percent in running text: There was a margin of 7 percent. Do not hyphenate percentages when used as an adjective: a 10 percent increase.
President (of Loyola University Chicago)
On an invitation or program, first reference: [Rev.] Raymond C. Baumhart, [S.J.,] President, Loyola University Chicago. For second reference: [Rev.] Baumhart.
For Loyola publications, first reference: Loyola President Raymond C. Baumhart[, S.J.] or Raymond C. Baumhart, Loyola President. For second reference: Father Baumhart.
As with any of these guidelines, use your discretion and use the term you think best fits your document and its intended audience. Be consistent within a document.
For Jesuits/Society of Jesus, first reference: James Maguire, S.J.. On subsequent references: Father Maguire. If your audience includes people not necessarily familiar with the Jesuit order, you may also use Father James Maguire, S.J. on first reference.
For priests outside of the Society of Jesus: Father John Smith or John Smith, a priest at Holy name Cathedral.
Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, first reference: Ann Ida Gannon, BVM. On subsequent references: Sister Gannon or Gannon.
Consider context when deciding to use a title after the first reference. It may be helpful to remind an audience of his or her religious orders, or it may become repetitive and lengthen a document.
See appendix and addresses.
When mailing postcards and other materials to students, alumni, and those affiliated with Loyola, each campus is assigned a designated return address:
- Health Sciences Campus: 2160 S. First Ave., Maywood, IL 60153
- Lake Shore Campus: 1032 W. Sheridan Road, Chicago, IL 60660
- Water Tower Campus: 820 N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611
See also addresses.
When referring to a saint by name, as in St. Ignatius or St. Joseph, use the abbreviated title St.
See appendix and capitalization.
Do not capitalize in running text: The program will begin fall 2016.
When items in a series involve internal commas, they should be separated by semicolons: The itinerary is as follows: St. Paul, Minnesota; Austin, Texas; Jackson Hole, Wyoming; and Green River, Utah.
Use when creating a compound sentence in lieu of a conjunction such as and or but: Do not run; walk to the nearest exit.
Although there are no periods in BVM and degrees, such as PhD, we are leaving them in S.J. for reasons of tradition: James Maguire S.J., served as Loyola's 20th president. Please note that in running copy, commas are required both before and after S.J.
Put one space between sentences, not two. Also, put one space after a colon, not two.
split verb forms
Avoid splitting infinitives: to leave, to help.
Incorrect: She was ordered to immediately return home.
Correct: She was ordered to return home immediately.
Avoid splitting compound verb forms: had left, are found out.
Use two-letter postal abbreviations only in mailing addresses; spell out state names in text unless space is an issue. See also addresses and cities.
See capitalization and titles of works.
titles of works
Art exhibits are capitalized and italicized: The Missing Peace.
Italicize titles of books, journals, plays, paintings and individual works of art, photographs, movies, television series, and other freestanding works. The names of art works of antiquity are usually set in roman type.
Put quotes around titles of articles, chapters, television episodes, speeches, lectures, dissertations, and other shorter works.
Do not capitalize articles or prepositions within a title unless it is the first word of a title: Through a Glass Darkly (Through is a preposition and would normally be lowercased). If the is part of a work's official title, it remains capitalized and is formatted accordingly: The New Yorker, The New York Times.
Know the difference between a topic and a title. A topic can be set in regular roman type in running copy: The Dalai Lama will speak about interfaith collaboration. A title should be capitalized and set in the appropriate style: “The Dalai Lama’s speech, “Interfaith Collaboration and the Future of Religious Pluralism,” was well received.
Capitalize when they precede a name as a title; lowercase when they follow the name or stand alone.
Always place long titles after a name.
Only professionals with an MD can be given the title Dr. preceding their name. For those with a PhD, see degrees.
Exceptions may be called for in promotional or other contexts for reasons of courtesy or politics.
Spell out as a noun: best university in the United States. Abbreviate U.S. as an adjective, and use periods: the U.S. hockey team. Use periods when abbreviating U.S. as a noun as well.
This is an exception to our normal capitalization rules. When referring specifically to Loyola University Chicago, capitalize University: Your annual gifts are vital to the future of the University.
When referring to universities in general or to higher education, use lowercase: Loyola is one of the finest Jesuit universities in the nation.
The word use is preferred.
Do not capitalize web, website, web page or internet.
Website is one word; web page is two.
When writing a URL or Web address in text, write in all lowercase with no spaces: chicagomanualofstyle.org.
The exception is LUC.edu, in which the LUC is capitalized: LUC.edu/umc/styleguide.
Try to keep a Web address on one line. If you must break it into two, always place the period or slash on the top line:
In running copy, insert a period after a URL if it ends a complete sentence: Learn more at LUC.edu/homecoming.
ZIP is an acronym and is in all-caps; code is lowercased.