Loyola University Chicago Style Guide
As part of an institution of higher education, it is important to be accurate, clear, and consistent in communication. University Marketing and Communication uses the Chicago Manual of Style, currently in its 16th edition. The Chicago Manual is one of the two most followed style guides and is geared toward making the English language clear and readable.
The guidelines below are intended to be helpful and to answer your questions, not to restrict. There is room for flexibility and for personal style. Always use discretion and tailor your language for its intended audience.
Below are some common rules and exceptions.
Of particular note are the following changes between the first version of the Loyola Style Guide and this updated version. Please see the corresponding entry for full information:
- The word website is now one word and lowercased.
- Michael J. Garanzini, S.J., is now officially the President of Loyola University Chicago, and should be named as such in formal communication.
- The abbreviation US, with no periods, is the preferred format for referring to the United States in shortened form.
Please contact University Marketing and Communication at firstname.lastname@example.org with questions or suggestions for making Loyola University Chicago's style guide more helpful.
As a rule, use full-word spellings in narrative text except where space is limited, in which case, use them consistently.
- Alumnus is male; alumni is plural. Alumni is used for mixed-gender groups.
- Alumna is female; alumnae is plural.
- Alum(s) is neutral and can be used in informal contexts.
- List alumni in text with their degree or school and class year as follows: John Doe (BA ’87) or John Doe (SSOM ’87). The decision to use degree or school is up to the writer, according to what is appropriate in context.
a.m. and p.m.
Lowercase with periods.
Avoid starting a sentence with and.
art exhibits and art works
Italicize the name of an exhibit: LUMA is proud to present its latest exhibit, Arts Botanica. Individual art works, paintings, and photographs are also italicized: The Piano Lesson. See Titles of works.
Beijing Center, the
Although the Beijing Center is sometimes known as TBC, do not capitalize the preceding the in running text: Students can spend time at the John Felice Rome Center and the Beijing Center.
board of trustees
Do not capitalize unless it’s part of the proper name: John Doe is chairperson of the Loyola University Chicago Board of Trustees. But Father Garanzini currently serves on the boards of trustees of Loyola University New Orleans and Fairfield University.
Avoid starting a sentence with but.
Stands for Sisters of the Blessed Virgin Mary. No periods.
Capitalize only when part of the name, otherwise do not: Lake Shore Campus but lakeside campuses and Lake Shore and Water Tower campuses. See appendix.
Go from specific location (room) to more general (floor and building) to the campus: Kasbeer Hall, 15th Floor, Corboy Law Center, WTC. See appendix.
- Many proper names combine a formal name with a generic or descriptive term (Loyola University Chicago, Centers of Excellence, President Garanzini, the Department of Communication, the Dean’s Fund for Excellence). Capitalize only when using the full, formal title, except in the case of University. After the first mention, an official name is often replaced by the generic term alone, which should be lowercased: The Department of Communication is pleased to announce a new position. The position will greatly increase the department’s efficiency. See also Centers of Excellence and University.
- A the preceding a proper name, even if it is part of the formal title, is lowercased in running text: Please donate to the Loyola Annual Fund. Does not apply to titles of works. See Beijing Center, the.
- When referring to the formal titles of two similar entities, do not capitalize the generic term they have in common even though it would be capitalized if used alone. Example: Forums will be held at the Water Tower and Lake Shore campuses.
Centers of Excellence and similar
Capitalize when referring to the Centers of Excellence. If referring to one specific center, capitalize its title: the Center for Integrated Risk Management and Corporate Governance. After that, if referring to it by the word center alone, it does not need to be capitalized. The Center for Integrated Risk Management and Corporate Governance is a new initiative. The center opened last year. See appendix for full list.
For a list of cities that may stand alone and do not require state/country identification, see state names.
Put an apostrophe before a class year: ’87. Alumni are listed as follows: John Doe (BA ’87). When referring to a class as a group, do not capitalize: the class of ’87. See also alumnus/alumna/alumni.
- Do not use a colon after a verb or a preposition.
Correct: A resume should include educational background, work experience, and any knowledge of foreign language.
Incorrect: A resume should include: educational background, work experience, and any knowledge of foreign language.
- Use one space after a colon.
Use a comma before the last item in a series of three or more: Every heart beats true for the red, white, and blue.
- Do not put spaces around the em dash. Do not substitute hyphens for em dashes.
- Em dash: Shows a break or dramatic pause: When I opened the door, there he was—with a knife.
- Two consecutive hyphens with no spaces between words will autoformat in Word.
- En dash: Indicates a range, such as a span of time or numbers: 1960s–1970s.
- Space-hyphen-space to autoformat in Word. It’s cumbersome, but you have to go back in and delete the spaces.
- Hyphen: used in compounds: 7-year-old girl.
- Has a key on the keyboard.
- Data is a plural noun and should be used as such. The data are compelling.
- Do not separate month and year sequences with a comma: June 2006, not June, 2006.
- In an invitation or referring to events in the future, list the date first, followed by time and place.
- Do not use periods: BA, PhD, MD, RN.
- Since the information is parenthetical, enclose it in commas in running text: John Doe, MD, hails from Altoona, Iowa.
- Form the plural by adding s with no apostrophe: MAs.
- Capitalize the formal name of a degree: Master of Science in Organizational Development.
- Do not capitalize an informal degree: master’s in environmental science.
- See also alumnus/alumna/alumni.
- Use lowercase, unless the word is normally capitalized in text: German and Russian department, biology department, sociology and anthropology department.
- Capitalize a department’s full, formal name: Department of Anthropology, University Marketing and Communication. (See Chicago Manual 8.73.)
el, referring to train
To indicate an omission in quoted text, used three spaced periods preceded by any other necessary mark of punctuation (including any period of a previous complete sentence, which always precedes the three spaced periods).
- Example in the middle of a sentence: “I had an amazing time studying in Rome. I can’t wait to back . . . in twenty years.”
- Example with previous complete sentence: “I had an amazing time studying in Rome. . . . I can’t wait to go back and visit my friends in twenty years.”
Use the hyphen. No need to capitalize.
These are singular nouns referring to groups; use them as such: Our faculty is world-class. To make faculty or staff plural, use staff members or members of the faculty, etc. There is usually no need to capitalize faculty or staff in text.
See President of Loyola and religious orders.
Health care, whether it is used as a noun or an adjective, should be written as two words and not hyphenated.
Avoid beginning a sentence with however. You may, however, offset it with commas.
- When compound modifiers precede a noun, hyphenation makes for easier reading: open-mouthed gape; 50-year reunion.
- The following terms should be written as one word and not hyphenated: nonprofit, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, preseason, multinational, postgraduate.
- Adverbs that end in –ly don’t need hyphens when used as modifiers: happily married couple. The word early, although it ends in –ly, does take a hyphen because it is an adjective: early-morning light.
Avoid using impact as a verb unless in a physical context. In other words, resist using impact as a verb meaning “to affect.” Although this usage is becoming more common in informal speech and writing, it is hyperbolic and widely considered incorrect. Consider using affect or influence instead. (See Chicago Manual 5.202.)
Use a space between initials: E. M. Forster.
Capitalize. Do not capitalize web, website, or web page. See also web.
Jr. and Sr.
In modern usage, Jr. and Sr. are no longer preceded by a comma: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was a civil rights leader.
Accepted abbreviation for CTA trains is ‘L.’ One quotation mark on each side and capitalized. This information is from the CTA Media Relations department.
Loyola is the entire title of the magazine, so you would list it like this: “The subject was mentioned in the New York Times, Chicago Sun-Times, Chicago Tribune Magazine, and Loyola magazine.”
Loyola University Chicago
Loyola University Chicago, Loyola, or LUC are acceptable. Avoid Loyola University or Loyola Chicago.
Do not capitalize unless there is a proper noun: anthropology major; English major. See also departments.
Capitalize when referring to the religious service.
In text, first reference should include full name; in later references use the last name only. Repeat the first name only to avoid confusion with someone else. See also religious
orders and titles.
Nonprofit is one word, without hyphens, when used either as adjective or a noun. Not-for-profit, which is also acceptable, however, does take hyphens. See also prefixes.
- Spell out one through nine, use numerals for 10 and up.
- Spell out any number beginning a sentence.
- Ages are hyphenated: 24-year-old man.
Use numerals and write out the world “percent” in running text: There was a margin of 7 percent.
- Singular nouns that end in s, add ’s: the class’s first graduate or LUHS’s strategic plan or Burns’s poems.
President of Loyola
1. On an invitation or program, first reference:
Rev. Michael J. Garanzini, S.J., President, Loyola University Chicago
2. On an invitation or program, second reference:
- For Loyola publications, first reference:
Loyola President Michael J. Garanzini, S.J.
or Michael J. Garanzini, Loyola President
- For Loyola publications, second reference:
As with any of these guidelines, use your discretion and use the term you think best fits your document and your document’s intended audience. Be consistent within a document.
See also President of Loyola.
- Jesuits/Society of Jesus: First reference: James Maguire, S.J.; subsequent reference: Father Maguire.
- Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary: First reference: Ann Ida Gannon, BVM; subsequent reference: Sister Gannon.
When referring to a saint by name, as in St. Ignatius or St. Joseph, use the abbreviated title St.
Do not capitalize in running text: The program will begin next fall.
When items in a series involve internal commas, they should be separated by semicolons: The itinerary is as follows: St. Paul, Minnesota; Austin, Texas; Jackson Hole, Wyoming; and Green River, Utah.
Although there are no periods in BVM and degrees (like MA), we are leaving them in S.J. for reasons of tradition.
Put one space between sentences, not two. Put one space after a colon, not two.
split verb forms
- Avoid splitting infinitives (to leave, to help, etc.):
Incorrect: She was ordered to immediately return home.
Correct: She was ordered to return home immediately.
- Avoid splitting compound verb forms (had left, are found out, etc.).
Use two-letter postal abbreviations only in addresses; spell out state names in text unless space is an issue. The following cities stand alone and do not require state/country identification: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Beijing, Rome, Vatican City.
titles of works
- Art exhibits are capitalized and italicized: The Missing Peace.
- Italicize titles of books, journals, plays, paintings and individual works of art, photographs, movies, television series, and other freestanding works. The names of art works of antiquity are usually set in roman type.
- Put quotes around titles of articles, chapters, television episodes, speeches, lectures, dissertations, and other shorter works.
- Do not capitalize articles or prepositions within a title unless it is the first word of a title: Through a Glass Darkly (Through is a preposition and would normally be lowercased). When newspapers and periodicals are mentioned in text, an initial the, even if part of the official title, is lowercased (unless it begins a sentence) and not italicized: “The article came from the Chicago Tribune.”
- Know the difference between a topic and a title. A topic can be set in regular roman type in running copy: The Dalai Lama will speak about interfaith collaboration. A title should be capitalized and set in the appropriate style: “The Dalai Lama’s speech, “Interfaith Collaboration and the Future of Religious Pluralism,” was well received.
Capitalize when they precede a name as a title; use lowercase when they follow the name or stand alone. Always place long titles after a name. Exceptions may be called for in promotional or other contexts for reasons of courtesy or politics.
Spell out as a noun: best university in the United States; abbreviate US as an adjective, and do not use periods: the US hockey team.
- This is an exception to our normal capitalization rules: when referring specifically to Loyola University Chicago, capitalize University: Your annual gifts are vital to the future of the University.
- When referring to universities in general or to higher education, use lowercase: Loyola is one of the finest Jesuit universities in the nation.
The word use is preferred.
- Do not capitalize web, website, or web page. Do capitalize Internet and World Wide Web.
- Website is one word; web page is two.
- When writing a URL or Web address in text, write in all lowercase with no spaces: chicagomanualofstyle.org.
- The exception is LUC.edu, in which the LUC is capitalized.
- Try to keep a Web address on one line. If you must break it into two, always place the period or slash at the beginning of the next line instead of at the end of the first.
- In running copy, insert a period after a URL if it ends a complete sentence. Example: Learn more at LUC.edu/homecoming.
- See also Internet.
ZIP is an acronym and is in all-caps; code is lowercased.