Loyola University Chicago Style Guide
As part of an institution of higher education, it is important to be accurate, clear, and consistent in communication. University Marketing and Communication maintains a University style guide as a resource for the preferred usage of common words, names, styles, and other questions that may frequently come up when producing various communications.
In general, Loyola follows the Chicago Manual of Style, one of the two most followed style guides. Its focus is to make the English language clear, consistent, and readable. For questions that cannot be answered in our own University style guide, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, which is available at chicagomanualofstyle.org. Loyola also uses the Merriam-Webster dictionary, which can be found online at merriam-webster.com. When in doubt, check one of these resources for additional help in determining the correct spelling, formatting, or grammar.
The following guidelines are intended to be helpful, but it is important to acknowledge context and audience when developing content. It may be more appropriate in certain circumstances to deviate from what is listed below. In these instances—whether it's more formal or casual—we ask that you be thoughtful in making these decisions and be consistent.
When writing campus names, schools, and buildings, refer to this Style Guide Appendix for guidance.
Please contact University Marketing and Communication at magazine@LUC.edu with questions or suggestions for making Loyola University Chicago's style guide more helpful.
As a rule, use full-word spellings in narrative text except where space is limited. If using abbreviations, use them consistently.
- Alumnus is male; alumni is plural. Alumni is used for mixed-gender groups.
- Alumna is female; alumnae is plural.
- Alum(s) is neutral and can be used in informal contexts.
See also degrees.
- In addresses, north, south, east, and west are abbreviated.
- When listing a full address, abbreviate Ave., Blvd., and St.; spell out Road: 6244 N. Winthrop Ave., 1032 N. Sheridan Road.
- In running text, it is preferred to spell out the entire address: Students are welcome to tour the Schreiber Center at 16 East Pearson Street.
- On formal invitations or other similar items, it may seem more appropriate to avoid abbreviations. Whenever that decision is made though, it must be consistent with all associated materials.
- For buildings and spaces on the Lake Shore Campus that do not have an address, a more general location can be given: San Francisco Hall, St. Ignatius Community Plaza between Sheridan Road and Rosemont Avenue.
- For invitations or items promoting alumni events, it is advised to include the specific street address.
See also campus locations.
a.m. and p.m.
Lowercase with periods.
- Avoid starting a sentence with and.
- Also avoid using the ampersand (&) symbol in place of the word unless it is part of a proper name or if space is a concern.
- Always spell out and for the names of official University schools, departments, and other organizations.
Arrupe College of Loyola University Chicago
The official name is Arrupe College of Loyola University Chicago. Arrupe College may be used on first reference, depending on context and use.
art exhibits and art works
- Italicize the name of an exhibit: LUMA is proud to present its latest exhibit, Arts Botanica.
- Individual art works, paintings, and photographs are also italicized: The Piano Lesson, Girl with a Pearl Earring.
See also titles of works and headlines.
board of trustees
- Do not capitalize unless it’s part of the proper name: John Doe is chairperson of the Loyola University Chicago Board of Trustees, but Joe Doe currently serves on the boards of trustees of Loyola University New Orleans and Fairfield University.
- The board of trustees is a singular noun: The board of trustees is meeting tomorrow night at the Schreiber Center.
Avoid starting a sentence with but.
Stands for Sisters of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Do not include periods.
- Capitalize only when part of the formal name: Lake Shore Campus, Water Tower Campus, Lake Shore and Water Tower campuses.
- Lowercase campus when using an informal name: Rogers Park campus, Gold Coast campus, Maywood campus, lakeside campuses.
See also capitalization; Health Sciences Campus; and John Felice Rome Center.
When listing the location of an event, use the following format: [Building Name], [Hall Name or Room Number], [Floor], [Campus or Street Address, optional]. Keep the audience in mind when deciding if it's necessary to specify an address or the campus, instead. While including the campus is appropriate for internal audiences who are already familiar with the University, using an address will be more helpful for external audiences:
Corboy Law Center, Kasbeer Hall, 15th Floor
Corboy Law Center, Kasbeer Hall, 15th Floor, Water Tower Campus
Corboy Law Center, Kasbeer Hall, 15th Floor, 25 E. Pearson St.
Corboy Law Center, Suite 1501, Water Tower Campus
- Many proper names combine a formal name with a generic or descriptive term: Loyola University Chicago, Centers of Excellence, President Maguire, School of Communication, the Dean’s Fund for Excellence. Capitalize only when using the full formal title. After the first mention, an official name is often replaced by the generic term alone, which should be lowercased: The Department of Biology is pleased to announce a new position. The position will greatly increase the biology department’s efficiency.
- When it is being used as a synonym for Loyola University Chicago, University should be capitalized. See also University.
- When the is preceding a proper name, even if it is part of the formal title, it is lowercased in running text: Please donate to the Loyola Annual Fund. This rule does not apply to titles of works. See also titles of works.
- When referring to the formal titles of two similar entities, do not capitalize the generic term they have in common even though it would be capitalized if used alone: Sheridan and Belmont roads, Hermitage and Paulina avenues, Chicago and Mississippi rivers. See also campus.
See also Centers of Excellence, president, and titles.
Centers of Excellence
Capitalize when referring to the Centers of Excellence. If referring to one specific center, capitalize its title: Center for Science and Math Education. After that, if referring to it by the word center alone, it does not need to be capitalized: The Center for Science and Math Education is a new initiative. The center opened last year.
See appendix for full list.
Capitalize only if referring to the global Catholic Church as a whole: Pope Francis will be speaking about the future of the Church in his speech.
For cities that are well-known to readers, it is not necessary to include state/country identifications. Whether or not to add the state or country should be decided based on audience and context. Cities that commonly stand alone are: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Rome, Vatican City, Washington, DC.
For cities such as Maywood, Illinois, and Woodstock, Illinois, where Loyola has campuses or centers, consider context when deciding whether to include the state name.
Put an apostrophe before a class year: ’87. Capitalize when referring to a class as a group: the Class of ’87.
See also degrees.
- Do not use a colon after a verb or a preposition.
Correct: A resume should include educational background, work experience, and any knowledge of foreign language.
Incorrect: A resume should include: educational background, work experience, and any knowledge of foreign language.
- If what follows the colon is a full sentence, capitalize the first word: His goal is simple: to improve graduation rates. His goal is simple: He needs to help them graduate.
- Use one space after a colon.
Use a comma before the last item in a series of three or more: Every heart beats true for the red, white, and blue.
There are a number of coronaviruses which cause disease; the official name of the one responsible for the pandemic of 2019-2020 is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease caused by this virus is named coronavirus disease 2019, commonly abbreviated as COVID-19. The terms "coronavirus" and "COVID-19" are not interchangeable; the former refers specifically to the virus and the latter to the disease caused by it.
When writing about the COVID-19 pandemic it is acceptable to use "the coronavirus" in context, despite the fact that there are multiple coronaviruses, when it is clear that you are referring to the virus which causes COVID-19. It is not acceptable to use "coronavirus" without "the" before it, or to shorten COVID-19 to simply COVID.
Please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style for additional details on usage.
- Do not put spaces around the em dash. Do not substitute hyphens for em dashes.
- Em dash shows a break or dramatic pause: When I opened the door, there he was—with a knife.
- En dash indicates a range, such as a span of time or numbers: 1960s–1970s. To format, hit space-hyphen-space to autoformat in Word, and then go back and delete the spaces.
- Hyphen is used in compounds: 7-year-old girl.
See also hyphens.
- Do not separate month and year sequences with a comma: June 2006, not June, 2006.
- In an invitation or referring to events in the future: List the date first, followed by time and then location of the event: December 14, 6 p.m., Damen Student Center.
- When listing a month, day, and year in running text, place commas after the day and year: The dinner held December 14, 2015, was a great success.
- In running text, spell out the names of months unless space is an issue. In those cases, abbreviate.
- Do not use ordinal numbers, such as 1st, 22nd, or 30th, unless referring to an address or building floor.
Spell as two words.
- Do not use periods: BA, PhD, MD, RN, AA.
- Since the information is parenthetical, enclose it in commas in running text: John Doe, MD, hails from Altoona, Iowa.
- Form the plural by adding s with no apostrophe: MAs, PhDs.
- Capitalize the formal name of a degree: Master of Science in Organizational Development.
- Do not list degrees after people's names in running text unless it is used to identify the degree they received from Loyola. Degrees should not be listed after the names of faculty or staff in running text.
- Do not capitalize an informal degree: master’s in environmental science, MA in writing.
- For current students, list their expected graduation year in running text: John Doe (’23).
- Students graduating from Arrupe College earn associate’s degrees: Jane Doe (AA ’17).
- List alumni in running text with their class year as follows, including the degree name when additional context is helpful: John Doe (’87) or John Doe (PhD ’87).
- When listing multiple degrees, do so in chronological order: Jane Doe (BS '92, MA '96) or John Doe (AA ’17, BA ’23).
- List alumni in text with their degree, class year, or, in rare cases like Mundelein, school as follows: John Doe (BA '87) or Jane Doe (MUND '87). The decision to use degree or school is up to the writer, according to what is appropriate in context.
See also alumnus/alumna/alumni.
- Use lowercase, unless the word is normally capitalized in text: German and Russian department, biology department, sociology department.
- Capitalize a department’s full, formal name: Department of Anthropology, University Marketing and Communication.
See also capitalization.
See gifts and giving.
el, referring to train
To indicate an omission in quoted text, used three periods, without any additional spaces. Use sparingly.
- In the middle of a sentence: “I had an amazing time studying in Rome. I can’t wait to go back…in 20 years.”
- At the end of a sentence: “I had an amazing time studying in Rome...I can’t wait to go back and visit my friends in 20 years.”
No need to capitalize.
These are singular nouns referring to groups; use them as such: Our faculty is world-class. To make faculty or staff plural, use staff members or members of the faculty. There is usually no need to capitalize faculty or staff in text.
See religious orders.
Use freshman when referring to a single student and freshmen for two or more. The freshman class is also appropriate.
gifts and giving
When referring to or soliciting gifts to the University, consider mission-driven language, such as support our students, invest in Loyola's future, and contribute to an accessible education, depending on context. It is preferable not to use the word donation.
- Sentence case is preferred for article headlines and subheads: A window to the world, A year to remember.
- When referencing a title of work that would normally be italicized, use quotation marks instead: The story behind "Moby Dick" and Herman Melville
Health care, whether it is used as a noun or an adjective, should be written as two words.
Health Sciences Campus
Refers to the Stritch School of Medicine, Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing, the Parkinson School of Health Sciences and Public Health, the biomedical programs in the Graduate School, and its other institutes and centers. Also, use Health Sciences Campus when just referencing the schools and centers located in Maywood, Illinois.
- When compound modifiers precede a noun, hyphenation makes for easier reading: open-mouthed gape; 50-year reunion, service-learning opportunities.
- The following terms should be written as one word and not hyphenated: nonprofit, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, multipurpose, preseason, multinational, postgraduate.
- When a prefix is placed before a word beginning with a capital letter, it is hyphenated: Non-Catholic is hyphenated, but nonreligious is not.
- Adverbs that end in –ly don’t need hyphens when used as modifiers: happily married couple. The word early, although it ends in –ly, does take a hyphen because it is an adjective: early-morning light.
- For additional questions about hyphen usage, refer to the Hyphenation Table on the Chicago Manual of Style website.
Jr. and Sr.
- Using a comma before Jr. and Sr. is determined by personal preference: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a civil rights leader.
- When preference is not known, follow modern usage, where no comma is used: John Doe Jr. Is an avid reader.
John Felice Rome Center
When appropriate, list the years attended following a student or alum’s name: Jane Doe (JFRC '90-'91, BS '92, MA '96).
See also degrees and the appendix.
For reasons of tradition, always include a comma between Jesuit and Catholic: Loyola is a Jesuit, Catholic university.
Accepted abbreviation for CTA trains is ‘L.’ One quotation mark on each side and capitalized. This information is from the CTA Media Relations department.
Loyola University Chicago
Always use Loyola University Chicago on first reference. Loyola University Chicago or Loyola are acceptable in later references. Avoid Loyola University, Loyola Chicago, or LUC.
Do not capitalize unless there is a proper noun: anthropology major; English major.
See also departments.
Capitalize when referring to the religious service.
- In text, first reference should include a person's full name. In later references, use the last name only. Repeat the first name only to avoid confusion when writing about two people with the same last name.
- For maiden or birth names, set off the previous name with parentheses: Jane (Johnson) Smith.
See also religious orders and titles.
Nonprofit is one word, without hyphens, when used either as an adjective or a noun. Not-for-profit, which is also acceptable, however, does take hyphens.
- Spell out one through nine, use numerals for 10 and up.
- Spell out any number beginning a sentence.
- For ages, measurements, and percentages, always use numerals: 6-year-old girl, 4 percent, 2 inches.
- When the photo depicts an event or meeting, include both location and full date, in that order.
- When including a title, place it before the individual’s name: President Jo Ann Rooney, Professor Patricia Mooney-Melvin.
- When listing the names of those featured in the photo, begin with the most prominent person in the frame. If no one is the main focus, list the names from left to right. Use your discretion when deciding to list an individual or to use a more generic caption.
See also photo credits.
- Photo credits should be placed in parentheses at the end of the caption after the final sentence: Sarah Cullen Fuller, right, won the Transformative Education Award at the 11th Annual Diversity Awards Reception held inside the Damen Student Center on Friday, April 15, 2016. The event was a part of Loyola's Weekend of Excellence, celebrating transformative education. (Photo: Natalie Battaglia)
- Other ways to format include: (Image courtesy of Lukas Keapproth), (Photo: Getty), (Photo: Getty/John Doe) (Building photo: Natalie Battaglia; student photo: Lukas Keapproth)
See also photo captions.
- Use numerals and write out the word percent in running text: There was a margin of 7 percent.
- Do not hyphenate percentages when used as an adjective: a 10 percent increase.
Capitalize when referring to the head of the Catholic Church: Tomorrow, the Pope will be speaking at the White House.
President (of Loyola University Chicago)
- Since 2016, Loyola’s president has been Jo Ann Rooney. Her full title is: Jo Ann Rooney, JD, LLM, EdD, president of Loyola University Chicago.
- On formal materials, including invitations, messages, signature lines, and bylines, use Jo Ann Rooney, JD, LLM, EdD, on first reference. For second reference: Dr. Rooney.
- On informal messages, including letters to donors and notes to the community, do not list degrees following her name.
- Do not list degrees in running text. Consider context when deciding how to write her title on first reference: Dr. Jo Ann Rooney, president of Loyola; Loyola President Jo Ann Rooney. On following references: Dr. Rooney.
- When referring to a single person of unspecified gender, use the pronouns they, them, theirs: A student should ask their professor for more information.
- Respect the wishes of an individual when using preferred pronouns. If needed, use a clarifying note at the end of the document accompanied by an asterisk: *Jane Doe uses the pronouns: they, them, theirs.
- For Jesuits/Society of Jesus, first reference: James Maguire, S.J. If your audience includes people not necessarily familiar with the Jesuit order, you may also use Father James Maguire, S.J., on first reference. Consider audience and context when deciding whether to use Father.
- On subsequent references: Father Maguire or Maguire.
- Always spell out Father and Sister when it precedes a name.
- For priests outside of the Society of Jesus: Father John Smith or John Smith, a priest at Holy Name Cathedral.
- Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, first reference: Ann Ida Gannon, BVM. On subsequent references: Sister Gannon or Gannon.
- Consider context when deciding to use a title after the first reference. It may be helpful to remind an audience of their religious orders, or it may become repetitive and lengthen a document.
See also S.J.
See appendix and addresses.
When mailing postcards and other materials to students, alumni, and those affiliated with Loyola, each campus is assigned a designated return address:
- Health Sciences Campus: 2160 S. First Ave., Maywood, IL 60153
- Lake Shore Campus: 1032 W. Sheridan Road, Chicago, IL 60660
- Water Tower Campus: 820 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611
See also addresses.
Both verbs are acceptable when citing quotations. Once decided which works best, use it consistently throughout the document or piece.
When referring to a saint by name, as in St. Ignatius or St. Joseph, use the abbreviated title St. Only spell out Saint when it is part of a formal name: Saint Ignatius High School, Saint Joseph Church.
See appendix and capitalization.
Do not capitalize in running text, unless it is part of a formal name: The program will begin fall 2016, but it will be put on hold over the Spring Semester.
- When items in a series involve internal commas, they should be separated by semicolons: The itinerary is as follows: St. Paul, Minnesota; Austin, Texas; Jackson Hole, Wyoming; and Green River, Utah.
- Use when creating a compound sentence in lieu of a conjunction such as and or but: Do not run; walk to the nearest exit.
Although there are no periods in BVM and degrees, such as PhD, we are leaving them in S.J. for reasons of tradition: James Maguire, S.J., served as Loyola's 20th president. Please note that in running copy, commas are required both before and after S.J.
See also religious orders.
Put one space between sentences, not two. Also, put one space after a colon, not two.
Use two-letter postal abbreviations only in mailing addresses; spell out state names in text unless space is a concern.
See also addresses and cities.
See capitalization and titles of works.
titles of works
- Art exhibits are capitalized and italicized: The Missing Peace.
- Italicize titles of books, journals, plays, paintings and individual works of art, photographs, movies, television series, and other freestanding works.
- Put quotes around titles of articles, chapters, television episodes, speeches, lectures, dissertations, and other shorter works.
- Do not capitalize articles or prepositions within a title unless it is the first word of a title: Through a Glass Darkly (Through is a preposition and would normally be lowercased). If the is part of a work's official title, it remains capitalized and is formatted accordingly: The New Yorker, The New York Times.
- Know the difference between a topic and a title. A topic can be set in regular roman type in running copy: The Dalai Lama will speak about interfaith collaboration. A title should be capitalized and set in the appropriate style: The Dalai Lama’s speech, “Interfaith Collaboration and the Future of Religious Pluralism,” was well received.
- Do not italicize the title of a website, unless it is also the name of a print publication: Buzzfeed, Chicago Tribune, Slate.
- Capitalize when they precede a name as a title; lowercase when they follow the name or stand alone.
- Always place long titles after a name.
- Only professionals with an MD can be given the title Dr. preceding their name, with the exception of Loyola President Jo Ann Rooney. For those with a PhD, see degrees.
- Even when Dr. is used before a name on first reference it should not be used before a last name on second reference.
- Exceptions may be called for in promotional or other contexts for reasons of courtesy or politics.
Use periods when abbreviating: the U.S. hockey team.
- This is an exception to our normal capitalization rules. When referring specifically to Loyola University Chicago, capitalize University: Your annual gifts are vital to the future of the University.
- When referring to universities in general or to higher education, use lowercase: Loyola is one of the finest Jesuit universities in the nation.
- Do not capitalize web, website, web page, or internet.
- Website is one word; web page is two.
- When writing a URL or web address in text, write in all lowercase with no spaces: chicagomanualofstyle.org.
- When writing the URL for the University’s website, always capitalize LUC: LUC.edu/commencement; magazine@LUC.edu
- Try to keep a web address on one line. If you must break it into two, always place the period or slash on the top line:
- In running copy, insert a period after a URL if it ends a complete sentence: Learn more at LUC.edu/homecoming.
Although ZIP is an acronym, both words are lowercased.