Loyola University Chicago

Department of Biology

Terry Grande


Graduate Program Director, Professor
Ph.D., 1992, Univ. of Illinois-Chicago
Phone: 773.508.3649
Fax: 773.508.3646


My research focuses on understanding the evolutionary relationships and historical biogeography of teleost fishes using morphology, paleontology, and molecular biology as data sources. A group called the Ostariophysi has been the focus of my work because of its importance both economically and scientifically. It is a group consisting of over 75% of all freshwater fish species, it has a worldwide geographic distribution and a fossil record dating to the Early Cretaceous (over 60 million years). An understanding of this group is central to an understanding of fish evolution in general.

My research also involves investigating the development and evolution of morphological structures shared by related fish groups. In specific terms, I am currently investigating the evolution of morphological adaptations that enable certain fish to transmit sound from the water through their swim bladder and into their inner ear. These hearing specialists (e.g., catfish, minnows, herrings) can thus perceive sound frequencies other fish can't, enabling them to better avoid predation, detect prey, and school. The study of these complex structures involves examining their development in newly hatched to adult fish while incorporating many preparation and data collecting techniques such as histology, SEM, and light microscopy. The information generated from this research will lead to a better understanding of sound perception in fishes, and answer the question: are fishes with these adaptations evolutionarily related?


Grande, T. and L. Grande. 2006. Reevaluation of the gonorynchiform genera †Rammalichthys, Gayet 1982 and †Judeichthys Gayet 1985, with comments on the families Charitosomidae Gayet 1993 and Gonorynchidae Scopoli 1777. Mesozoic Fishes. in press.

Braun, C, and T. Grande. 2006. Evolution of peripheral mechanisms for the enhancement of sound reception. Fish Bioacoustics. 73 ms pages. in press.

Grande, T. and L. Grande. 2005. Interrelationships and historical biogeography of †Notogoneus Cope 1885 (Ostariophysi: Gonorynchidae). In: F.J.Poyato-Ariza (ed.). Fourth International Congress on Mesozoic Fishes- Systematics, Homology and Nomenclature. 123-125. Ediciones UAM.

Grande, T. and B. Young. 2004. The ontogeny and homology of the Weberian apparatus in the zebrafish Danio rerio (Ostariophysi: Cypriniformes). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 140: 241 - 254.

Grande, T. and De Pinna, M. 2004. The evolution of the Weberian apparatus: a phylogenetic perspective. In: Arratia, G. and A. Tintori (eds.). Mesozoic Fishes: Systematics and Biodiversity. 429 - 448. Verlag Pfeil.

Grande, T., H. Laten and A. Lopez. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of extant esocid species (Teleostei: Salmoniformes) based on morphological and molecular characters. Copeia. 2004 (4): 743 - 757.

De Pinna, M. and T. Grande. 2003. Ontogeny of the accessory neural arch in pristigasteroid clupeomorphs and its bearing on the homology of the otophysan claustrum (Teleostei). Copeia. 2003: 838-845.

Grande, T. and J. Shardo. 2002. Morphology and development of the postcranial skeleton in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes). Fieldiana. 1518(99): 1- 30.

Braun, C. and T. Grande. 2002. Evolution of the octavolateralis system: a phylogenetic assessment. Bioacoustics. 12 (2002): 118 -120. Grande, T. and C. Braun. 2002. Evolution of the Weberian apparatus. Bioacoustics.12 (2002): 120- 122.